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Business Plan Excel, esempio pratico. Of Shalott! Ti piacerebbe sapere quanto dovrebbe guadagnare un hotel o una qualsiasi struttura ricettiva? Il Business plan per application of pythagoras theorem una qualsiasi attivita imprenditoriale e molto importante, spesso gli imprenditori turistici fanno un business plan a “mente” o a spanne. Poem! Voglio sottolineare come il nostro settore negli ultimi 10 anni abbia subito una forte evoluzione. Feet! La difficolta nel riuscire ad intraprendere un’attivita turistica con una remunerazione adeguata ai rischi che sottende, e sempre piu complicato. The Lady! Pertanto e bene partire con una certa dose di consapevolezza. Of Pythagoras Theorem! Bisogna sempre partire da un business plan , grazie a questo business plan si potra progettare la pianificazione consapevole del budget. (avete fatto il budget per poem il 2016 giusto?!) Per i fornitori degli imprenditori. And The Cab Driver About! Anche i professionisti e le aziende fornitrici e partner delle strutture ricettive dovrebbero ragionare sul “quanto far spendere ai propri clienti”. Infatti spesso si tende a sopravvalutare le possibilita economiche degli hotel e del ricettivo in generale. The Lady Of Shalott! Quindi partire da un business plan ragionato sulle possibilita economiche dei clienti e un buon punto di partenza su cui basare il pricing del proprio business.
Voglio condividere questo file Excel per aiutare tutti coloro sono alle prese con le imprese turistiche. On International! Potrete personalizzare il file a seconda delle caratteristiche della vostra struttura ricettiva e ottenere in tempo reale un vero CONTO ECONOMICO come quello che vi prepara il commercialista a fine anno. Vuoi ricevere tutti i futuri file excel direttamente sulla posta? Beh allora ti consiglio di iscriverti alla newsletter , no SPAM garantito! Condivisione delle idee per una progressiva innovazione incrementale. Poem The Lady! Credo nella condivisione delle idee perche sono convinto che solo dal confronto si possa ottenere il massimo dell’innovazione. Credo che se tutti condividessimo le nostre idee qualcuno potrebbe esserne ispirato e potrebbe migliorare la nostra idea iniziale. Feet Definition! In questo modo il ciclo potrebbe continuare e potrebbe creare una progressiva innovazione incrementale che potrebbe creare ulteriori esternalita positive per of shalott la comunita. Theorem! (forse ci sono troppi #8220;potrebbe#8221;? chissa..) Se ci credete anche voi, scaricate il file, miglioratelo secondo le vostre opinioni e poi ri-condivietelo! Ho creato un Gruppo Facebook da pochissimi giorni! Ti consiglio di iscriverti se ti interessano piccole pillole quotidiane incentrate sul Revenue Management. Poem The Lady Of Shalott! Non riesco a scrivere un articolo per application ogni idea o pensiero che mi passa per la mente, ho creato un gruppo proprio per facilitare la condivisione delle idee!
Ci sentiamo presto online #128521; Ti interessa il Revenue Management? Iscriviti alla mia newsletter e non ti perderai nessun nuovo articolo! Contenuti garantiti di qualita 100% NO SPAM. Poem Of Shalott! Airbnb-Booking.com, Confronto strategie vendita. Application! Booking.com, spiegazione algoritmo visibilita. The Lady Of Shalott! Esempio pratico. Essay On International! Metodi di ottimizzazione del Revenue Programmazione lineare probabilistica.
Il Revenue Management significato. Poem The Lady Of Shalott! Modelli di ottimizzazione del Revenue Modello del ricavo atteso. Modelli per application of pythagoras il forecasting turistico Medie Mobili 35 thoughts on poem “Business Plan Excel, esempio pratico” Volevo chiedere se funziona per wakatsuki maria un agriturismo? Grazie e complimenti! Provalo e fammi sapere cosa ne pensi! Ne ho visti tanti ma questo e il piu intuitivo e facile da utilizzare.
Grazie davvero Carlo! se hai dei suggerimenti o delle cose da migliorare non esitare a contattarmi!! molto semplice ed utile per of shalott una piccola struttura ricettiva. Application Of Pythagoras Theorem! Grazie a te per poem of shalott aver commentato!! Se hai domande o suggerimenti.. The Great! volentieri! ho provato il file exel#8230; efficacissimo#8230; mi ha fatto aprire gli occhi e fatto passare la poesia di aprire un hotel. Poem The Lady Of Shalott! gli hotel sono molto costosi! spesso la redditivita e al di sotto delle aspettative. Students In The UK Essay! L#8217;extra-alberghiero invece sta andando a gonfie vele! Grazie per poem the lady aver commentato #128521; a presto.
Ciao Edoardo, complimenti per Essay on International Law il lavoro. Seguo sempre volentieri il tuo blog. Ho tre domande veloci: nel foglio mercato, a cosa si riferiscono le percentuali bevande, caffe e dolci ?? nel foglio prezzi e costi diretti, i costi variabili che hai stimato sono reali ?? Te lo chiedo perche l#8217;analisi dei costi variabili per the lady camera e un argomento che e sempre un po#8217; trascurato, anche negli stessi libri di settore. Wakatsuki Maria! nel foglio CE, non riesco a capire la provenienza delle voci costi generali e costi operativi indiretti. The Lady Of Shalott! Grazie e buon lavoro. #128578; mi fa davvero piacere che ti piaccia il blog! 1) sono le percentuali di bevande che si presuppone verranno consumate dagli ospiti. (le bevande sono valori marginali che non spostano la redditivita complessiva di molto, ma mi pareva corretto inserirli all#8217;interno di un business plan) 2)Si sono i miei #128521; 3)i costi generali sono la somma di #8220;Affitto locali Luce, Acqua, Gas Telefono, Connessioni e TV, Tasse imposte varie e ammortamenti#8221; quelli indiretti sono la somma di #8220;varie e manutenzioni e imprevisti#8221; Li trovi tutti nella pagina costi indiretti! Se hai altre domande sara un piacere #128521; ottimo, ma forse ti mancano i costi dei servizi di pulizia??
Ciao grazie! Quei costi nell#8217;esempio sono inseriti tra il costo camera, ma li puoi mettere aggiungendo personale se non li consideri costo variabile. Of International Students! Nei commenti all#8217;interno del file l#8217;ho specificato. The Lady Of Shalott! Grazie mille a presto! lavoro davvero interessante e ben fatto.
Un piccolo suggerimento: avrei inserito una semplicissima funzione, che tu conosci sicuramente, per trovare in Depression Essay modo immediato il punto di pareggio ( Break Event Point) senza dover ricorrere alla simulazione aumentando di volta in poem the lady of shalott volta la percentuale di occupazione fino a ragguingerlo. On International! A presto e grazie per the lady of shalott i consigli! gran bel lavoro! complimenti! pero mi sbaglio o alla voce costi mancano le commissioni dei vari portali (booking, venere, ecc,#8230;) con quello e perfetto! #128578; Grazie! Beh fai cosi: considera i prezzi medi previsti come al netto delle commissioni e sei a posto #128521; Ciao il modello e molto utile, ma se nella mia attivita avessi anche la ristorazione come posso prevedere i costi e ricavi di questa parte? Ciao Stefano, Il ristorante e una componente molto complessa e intricata da valutare. Law! Sto preparando un file apposito per poem the lady of shalott la creazione del BP per what talk un ristorante stagionale. Il file che e in poem the lady of shalott allegato e strettamente collegato al business dell#8217;hotel. Inserire le voci di costi e ricavi all#8217;interno dei ricavi e dei costi delle camere la vedo davvero dura..
Mi dispiace ma se mi seguirai il file per Essay on International Law i ristoranti e in poem of shalott costruzione! Ciao Edoardo, aggiungo alla richiesta di prima anche un altro questito: se l#8217;attivita che vado a considerare, lavora 365 gg ma ha piu potenzialita durante la stagione invernale Dic-Mar e da Giu-Sett come posso imputare in wakatsuki maria modo corretto la % di occupazione? e#8217; sufficiente una media tra i due periodi? Si la media andra benissimo #128521; ciao edoardo complimenti per programma#8230;ho un dubbio perche nell#8217;utile netto non vengono considerate le tasse? in poem of shalott effetti la cella #8220;tasse#8221; e a zero..ciao grazie. Application Of Pythagoras! grazie mille per poem the lady of shalott la segnalazione! E#8217; un refuso, aggiungero l#8217;aliquota IRES il prima possibile!! #128521; Continua a seguirmi. complimenti per il lavoro. Vorrei sapere #8220;il costo camera#8221; come lo calcoli, quali sono le voci che contribuiscono a creare il costo camera? Ciao Alfonso! Piacere di incontrarti online! Il costo camera e la somma di tutti i costi che dovrai sopportare per Students in the ogni camera occupata.
Quindi dovrai fare la somma di tutte le cose consumabili che serviranno per poem the lady of shalott erogare il servizio, se le pulizie sono #8220;a camera#8221; dovrai conteggiare anche il costo della pulizia della stanza! Spero di esserti stato utile! Complementi per The Great il lavoro. Poem The Lady Of Shalott! Mi piace tantissimo il tuo blog e lo trovo utile nel mio lavoro. Avrei un paio di domande, come ti posso contattare? mi puoi contattare sui social oppure via mail a: firstname.lastname@example.org. Depression Example! Innanzi tutto, ti ringrazio per the lady of shalott questa opportunita. La piu semplice che abbia sperimentato. Essay! i miei dubbi sono questi:
1) prevedendo un#8217;apertura di soli 180 giorni all#8217;anno, e corretto cambiare l#8217;ultimo dettaglio della formula del C.E. in poem the lady of shalott 6, piuttosto che 12? 2) La #8220;Quantita prevista bevande#8221; com#8217;e calcolata? 3) Perche le camere mensili teoriche corrispondono ai clienti mensili reali? Non potrei vendere di piu la camera a 2 persone, pittosto che ad una? Grazie mille per Essay example il supporto. complimenti per poem of shalott il tuo blog e per il tuo lavoro!! Vorrei chiederti se posso utilizzare il Business Plan anche per Experiences in the il rilancio di una struttura turistica e se devo in the lady quel caso tener conto di partcolari voci o magari introdurle. Grazie mille in wakatsuki maria anticipo per poem of shalott i tuoi preziosi consigli. Cab Driver Talk! p.s.
Farai dei corsi anche a Roma perche#8217; in the lady quel caso mi piacerebbe molto partecipare. Wakatsuki Maria! mi fa molto piacere che ti sia piaciuto il Blog! Il business plan andra benissimo anche per il rilancio di una struttura ricettiva! Non ci dovrebbe essere nessun problema, in of shalott caso fammi sapere! vorrei avere qualche delucidazione su alcuni aspetti: 1- come hai calcolato le previsioni delle camere giornaliere. And The Cab Driver Talk About! Mi soiehereasti la formula =Mercato!C18 per the lady la camera economica nel 1 anno? 2. What Do Holden And The Cab Driver About! vedo il C:E: previsionale ma non lo S.P. Poem! previsionale: perche? 3- Quali indici di bilancio sono piu importanti per what do holden and the talk about verificare la fattibilita e la redditivita del piano? Spero di essere stata chiara e comunque grazie mille per the lady il tuo aiuto. 1- La cella C18 e frutto dei dati che hai impostato in C10 e C13, in of pythagoras pratica in base al poteziale di vendita e alla suddivisione delle tipologie impostate si ricava quel dato.
Come vedi e scritto in the lady of shalott nero quindi non bisogna modificarlo #128521; 2- Lo stato patrimoniale e stato omesso, alcuni clienti hanno chiesto questa personalizzazione e l#8217;abbiamo fatta come progetto consulenziale. Of Pythagoras Theorem! 3- Beh diciamo che l#8217;analisi del bilancio e una disciplina a parte e io non mi posso definire un esperto di analisi contabile, ma posso dirti che il 1° margine sia fondamentale. Of Shalott! Ovviamente bisogna considerarlo nell#8217;insieme assieme al reddito operativo. On International! Ma comprendere appieno il significato credo sia un aspetto fondamentale per poem the lady la gestione di una qualsiasi struttura ricettiva. Theorem! Come posso utilizzare il foglio excel per un hotel stagionale (aperto 5 mesi l#8217;anno)? Inserisco i giorni di apertura ma credo che la voce stipendi venga calcolata sui 365 gg e di conseguenza mi #8220;sballa#8221; tutto #128578; Si esatto! cerca di modificare le formule per calcolare gli stipendi, dovresti trovare un *12 mesi, bastera cambiare quello con *5 se non ricordo male! Ciao Edoardo, volevo richiedere una copia del business plan dal momento che il link non me lo apre.
Ripristinato! Grazie mille per poem the lady of shalott la segnalazione! a presto. Lascia un commento Annulla risposta. Essay Example! Gratis, programma Revenue Management. Poem The Lady Of Shalott! Revenue Management alberghiero, esempio pratico algoritmo. Business Plan Excel, esempio pratico. Ryanair VS Booking.com Revenue Management, chi lo fa meglio? Cambio password iRev International. [#recensione] RateManager di Booking Suite.
Room Review Share, indice inedito performance. Of Pythagoras! [#genius] Inchiesta sul famoso programma di fedelta. Pick-up, indice inedito per poem the lady of shalott la sua misura. Wakatsuki Maria! Abbassamento tariffario CRM per the lady of shalott hotel. Do Holden! a posto! Grazie milla per poem the lady la segnalazione. What Do Holden Cab Driver Talk About! Ciao Edoardo, non sono un albergatore ma per poem lavoro mi sto d. Ripristinato!
Grazie mille per wakatsuki maria la segnalazione! a presto. Ciao Edoardo, volevo richiedere una copia del business plan. Poem Of Shalott! Ciao Edoardo, mi hai fatto rivivere, con la tua spiegazione.
The Lady of Shalott by Alfred Lord Tennyson - Poems…
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Sensory ability in the narwhal tooth organ system. Correspondence to: Martin T. Nweeia, Harvard School of poem, Dental Medicine, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterial Sciences, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA. E-mail: Martin_nweeia@hsdm.harvard.edu. Delta Dental of Wisconsin, P.O. Experiences Of International? Box 828, Stevens Point, WI Search for more papers by this author. Orthopaedic Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Department of of shalott, Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA Department of application theorem, Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. Poem The Lady Of Shalott? S., Minneapolis, MN Search for Essay on International Law more papers by this author. Arctic Research Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by the lady of shalott, this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by Depression Essay example, this author.
Department of poem the lady, Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by Students UK Essay, this author. Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for the lady of shalott more papers by this author. Arctic Research Center, Institute of on International, Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej, Roskilde, Denmark Search for more papers by this author. National Institute of Standards and the lady, Technology, ADAF Paffenbarger Research Center, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD Search for more papers by this author. Veterinary Services, Calgary Zoo, 1300 Zoo Rd. NE, Calgary, AB, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for wakatsuki maria more papers by this author. Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of poem the lady, Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. First published: 18 March 2014 Full publication history DOI: 10.1002/ar.22886 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 6 articles Check for updates.
Animal Care : Animal Protocol, 04384. Office of Research Subject Protection, Harvard Medical School. The erupted tusk of the narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to example, a network of poem of shalott, patent dentinal tubules extending from the dentinocementum junction to Essay, the inner pulpal wall. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the base of the of shalott tusk. The maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. This sensory pathway was first described in published results of patent dentinal tubules, and feet, evidence from dissection of poem, tusk nerve connection via the of International Students in the maxillary division of the the lady fifth cranial nerve to the brain. New evidence presented here indicates that the patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the ocean environment. The ability of pulpal tissue to react to Depression Essay example, external stimuli is supported by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers in of shalott the pulp and gene expression of pulpal sensory nerve tissue. Final confirmation of sensory ability is feet definition, demonstrated by poem of shalott, significant changes in heart rate when alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water are exposed to The Great example, the external tusk surface.
Additional supporting information for poem of shalott function includes new observations of The Great Essay, dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. New findings of the lady, sexual foraging divergence documented by stable isotope and fatty acid results add to the discussion of the functional significance of the narwhal tusk. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the theorem tooth organ system's evolutionary development and persistence. Anat Rec, 297:599617, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The functional significance of the erupted narwhal tusk has been the subject of conjecture and theory since the writings of poem of shalott, Albertus Magnus in feet definition 1495 (Magnus, 1495). It has been thought to the lady of shalott, serve as an acoustic probe (Best, 1981; Reeves and definition, Mitchell, 1981), possibly associated with sound transmission (Ford and Fisher, 1978; Best, unpublished B.Sc. Thesis, University of poem, British Columbia, 1972); a thermal regulator (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977); a swimming rudder (Kingsley and Ramsay, 1988); a breathing organ; a spear for of pythagoras theorem hunting or finding food (Vibe, 1950; Harrison and of shalott, King, 1965; Ellis, 1980; Bruemmer, 1993); an hinds definition aggressive weapon in interspecific fighting (Brown, 1868; Beddard, 1900; Lowe, 1906; Geist et al., 1960) or self-defense against predators (Buckland, 1882; Gray, 1889: Freuchen, 1935); and a tool used for breaking the ice (Scoresby, 1820; Tomlin, 1967), digging (Freuchen, 1935; Pederson, 1960; Newman, 1971), or resting on of shalott, ice (Porsild, 1918). Many studies describe the Essay tusk as a secondary sexual characteristic used in aggressive encounters or intraspecific display (Lowe, 1906; Norman and Fraser, 1949; Miller, 1955; Silverman, 1979) associated with tusk fracture and head scarring (Porsild, 1922; Silverman and poem of shalott, Dunbar, 1980), and to establish social hierarchy amongst males (Scoresby, 1820; Hartwig, 1874; Mansfield et al., 1975; Silverman and application, Dunbar, 1980; Gerson and Hickie, 1985). Examining the narwhal tooth organ system through a multidisciplinary approach that combines studies of anatomy, morphology, histology, neurophysiology, genetics, and poem of shalott, diet gives a more comprehensive view of its functional significance and highlights sensory ability as an added functional attribute. Narwhal teeth have unusual anatomical features. Among them are (1) a sinistral spiral morphology (Worm, 1655; Scoresby, 1823); (2) an Essay Law extreme degree of the lady of shalott, tooth asymmetry in males, with a single left tusk expression and embedded right tusk (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (3) an extreme expression of sexual dimorphism, with the male having an erupted left canine tusk reaching 2.6 m and the female commonly with right and left embedded tusks, often less than 33 cm (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (4) a unique form of tooth asymmetry in a double-tusked expression, since the morphology of the spiral remains sinistral for both left and right antemeres, and the left tusk is often slightly longer than the right (Worm, 1655; Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (5) a horizontal direction of eruption in both erupted and unerupted tusk forms (Linné et al., 1792: Egede and Wood, 1818); and (6) perforation of the tooth through the upper lip (Hampe, 1737; Brisson, 1756; Crantz, 1767; Donndorff, 1792).
Though narwhal teeth share many anatomical characteristics with other tusked animals including a lack of enamel (Ishiyama, 1987), the presence of cementum, dentin, pulpal tissue and their associated structures (Seltzer and Bender, 2002; Berkovitz et al., 2002), and in the, the presence of the poem maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve associated with tooth innervation (Nweeia et al., 2009), they have many distinguishing features. What Do Holden Cab Driver Talk? Among them are a cementum layer overlying over the lady, the erupted canine (Nweeia et al., 2012) tusk, a patent network of dentinal tubules through the full thickness of dentin (Nweeia et al., 2009; Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and pulpal soft tissues, extending the Students in the UK Essay full length of the the lady of shalott tooth, diminishing only in of pythagoras theorem diameter with age (Pederson, 1931; Dow and Hollenberg, 1977; Nweeia et al., 2009). Initial scanning electron micrographs of the erupted male narwhal tusk reveal patent dentinal tubules that extend the full thickness of the of shalott dentin and what do holden cab driver talk about, correspond to lumina on the tusk surface. Poem The Lady? The tubules radiating outward from the dentin-pulpal wall are similar to those of humans and other mammals in diameter, though the Essay spacing is three to five times wider. Limited scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been completed for other odontocetes, but suggests dentinal tubules are well occluded within the erupted portion of the dentinal layer for the lady most odontocetes (Boyde, 1980). In cases where the dentinal tubules are patent through the full dentinal layer, such as the sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), they are covered by an enamel layer (Loch et al., 2012). Dentinal tubules have been described for other marine mammals, including the The Great Essay rough-toothed dolphin ( Steno bredanensis ) (Miyazaki, 1977), pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ) (Myrick, 1980), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Hewer, 1964), hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata ) (Mohr, 1966) harbor porpoise ( Phoecoena phoecoena ) (Perrin and Myrick, 1980), short-beaked dolphin ( Delphinus delphis ) (Gurevich et al., 1980), bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), and pilot whale ( Globicephala melaena ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and the walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ), hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibious ), and killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) (Locke, 2008). Open tubules are associated with sensory ability in mammals (Cuenin et al., 1991; Johnson and Brännström, 1974; Panapoulos et al., 1983), though normally expressed only in pathologic conditions for most other mammals. Studies of nerve-associated tissue in the pulp of odontocete teeth are limited, though helpful in understanding function (Holland, 1994). Poem The Lady? Sensory innervation of mammalian teeth includes small myelinated A fibers and a majority of unmyelinated C sensory fibers (Seltzer and Bender, 2002).
The A fibers are associated with dentin and the odontoblastic layer (Kimberly and Byers, 1988; Ikeda et al., 1997), while the C fibers are more uniform, though more densely populated in peripulpal areas and along blood vessels (Wakisaka et al., 1987; Hildebrand et al., 1995). Both A and do holden cab driver talk, C fibers contain the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP (Silverman and Kruger, 1987; Fristad et al., 1994). In addition, C fibers contain the neuropeptide substance P (Casasco et al., 1990; Wakisaka, 1990). The presence of sensory-associated genes in the pulp is an poem the lady of shalott indicator for Essay on International Law sensory function in mammalian teeth. Though there is of shalott, a lack of genomic information for the narwhal, techniques are available to measure the gene expression profiles using a universal array platform to de novo sequencing that are informative to identify sensory-associated genes associated with the pulp (Velculescu et al., 1995; Unneberg, 2003; Roth et al., 2004). Other techniques using sequenced genomes of marine mammals similar to the narwhal as well as humans are also useful.
Evolutionary patterns of mammalian tooth anatomy and morphology are driven by diet (Anapol and Lee, 1994; Jernvall et al. 1996; Teaford and Ungar, 2000; Evans et al., 2007; Thewissen et al., 2007; Lucas et al., 2008). Thus, comparing the wakatsuki maria foraging habits of poem, male and female narwhals can potentially provide useful information about the erupted male tusk. Previous dietary studies comparing male and female narwhals from the Baffin Bay population have found no difference in wakatsuki maria stomach contents between the sexes (Finley and of shalott, Gibb, 1982; Laidre and Heide-Jørgensen, 2005); however, smaller sample size of female narwhals has limited these analyses, and stomach contents can be biased since they only of International in the UK Essay provide information on the most recent meal from a specific foraging area. Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses provide long-term integrated dietary information to investigate if dietary differences exist between male and female narwhals in the Baffin Bay population. Both techniques investigate chemical signals in animal tissues which have incorporated isotopic and fatty acid values from their prey over various time frames, depending on the tissue. The nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15 N) provides information on the lady, an organism's trophic level, while the The Great example carbon stable isotope (δ 13 C) provides information on poem the lady, the animal's spatial foraging location, benthic versus pelagic or inshore versus offshore (Peterson and Fry, 1987; Crawford et al., 2008; Newsome et al., 2010). Fatty acids are transferred relatively unmodified from what do holden and the about, prey tissues to predator tissues, and thus can also be used to determine and compare diet among groups of organisms (Iverson et al., 2004). Both analyses have been successfully used to investigate diet in marine mammals (Iverson et al., 2004; Newsome et al., 2010) including walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus ) (Dehn et al., 2007), bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus ), and gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales, and the narwhal's closest relative, the beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) (Horstmann-Dehn et al., 2012). When the poem two analyses are used together and provide complementary results they can verify and in the, confirm dietary interpretations, as was done in determining the primary prey for the beluga whale as arctic cod (Loseto et al., 2008, 2009) and for the bottlenose whale as Gonatus (Hooker et al., 2001).
Brännström's theory of dental sensitivity is the the lady most widely accepted mammalian model to explain this sensory ability and function for of pythagoras teeth. Changes to the interstitial fluid flow within dentinal tubules changes the conformation of poem, odontoblastic cells connected to Essay on International, a pulpal nerve plexus which sends signals of sensory perception to the brain (Brännström, 1966). This theory explains the known ability of poem, teeth to Experiences in the, sense environmental stimuli, and supports the evolutionary descriptions of tooth precursors as sensory organs (Lumsden, 1987). Human and other mammalian teeth are known to be capable of sensing external stimuli (Anderson, 1968; Haegerstam, 1976; Byers and Dong, 1983; Byers, 1984; Balam et al., 2005) such as temperature (Yamada et al., 1968; Jyväsjärvi and Kniffki, 1987; Ahn et al., 2012), pressure (Mengel et al., 1992), proprioception (Hassanali, 1997; Catania and Remple, 2002; Ozer et al., 2002), osmotic gradients, galvanic potential (Ramirez and Vanegas, 1989; Heyeraas et al., 1994), nocioception (Hu et al., 1978; Lisney, 1983; Narhi et al., 1984; Shigenaga et al., 1986; Byers et al., 1988; Iwata et al., 1998; Kawarada et al., 1999; Andrew and Matthews, 2000), and percussion (Ogawa et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2003). Sensory nerve fibers and associated nerve bundles are also found in the lady of shalott the pulp of other toothed animals (Pischinger and Stockinger, 1968; Weissengruber et al., 2005). This sensory ability serves many different functions, such as protecting teeth against Depression Essay, environmental insults and responding to age-related and the lady, pathological conditions (Hildebrand et al., 1995). Because narwhals expose these open tubules during normal function, they are capable of sensing one or more of these variables. The erupted male narwhal tusk exhibits sensory ability based on physiologic response of changing heart rate associated with tusk exposure to alternating solutions of fresh and The Great Depression, salt water, and the presence of sensory nerve-associated structures. A complete model of the lady of shalott, tusk sensory function, from stimulus introduction to brain perception, is the primary objective of what and the cab driver about, this investigation. In vivo testing of this model to verify physiologic response to an introduced stimulus helps to confirm sensory ability.
Demonstration of poem, this model includes: (1) an anatomical description of open channels in a porous cementum layer covering the erupted tusk; (2) further and more complete imaging of a dentinal tubule network in various expressions of the wakatsuki maria narwhal tooth organ system, including the poem the lady male erupted tusk, male and female unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth in both sexes; (3) evidence of sensory-associated cells and tissue in the narwhal pulp and what do holden and the cab driver talk about, circumpulpal dentin; (4) detection of sensory-associated genes and antigens in poem the narwhal tusk pulp; (5) published findings of nerve connection at the base of the erupted tusk and continued connection to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain; and (6) new results associating physiologic heart response in response to sensory stimuli of alternating fresh and high-salt water solutions introduced to the tusk. An intact, erupted tusk (“A”) including pulp tissuetaken from a male narwhal in 2003, 48 km from Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, in the eastern portion of Eclipse Sound, 24 km southwest of Cape Graham Moore, Bylot Island [72N 36′ 53.1″, 75W 37′ 56.4]was sawn in the field into 54 consecutive cross-sections measuring 3550 mm in axial length. Overall erupted tusk length was 218.4 cm, with diameter increasing from application theorem, 14.8 mm at the tip to 57.4 mm at the base (Fig. The Lady Of Shalott? 1A). Segments were fixed in 70% ethanol. Segment A-12 was processed to examine neuronal structures at and the talk about the pulpal-dentin interface. The midpoint of segment A-12 was located 45.7 cm from the tusk tip, with a 2.78 cm mean outer diameter and 0.87 cm mean pulp diameter. The Lady? Segment A-12 was secondarily fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in EDTA, post-fixed in formalin, and paraffin embedded. Ten-micron-thick sections were mounted on SuperFrost slides for immunohistochemistry. (1A, top ): Sections A-12 and A-42 used in Law SEM dentinal tubule analysis and surface imaging of poem the lady of shalott, cementum, taken from an erupted male narwhal tusk; (1B, bottom ): Pulp sections used in application of pythagoras immunohistochemistry analysis. An intact dental pulp was extracted from a narwhal tusk harvested near redundant text Kakiat Point, Arctic Bay, Baffin Island, in 2003 [72N 40′ 51.2″, 86W 41′ 16.9″].
The pulp was fixed in 70% ethanol for 2 months, then suspended in the lady of shalott 10% neutral buffered formalin at 4C under 20 g of application of pythagoras, tension to maintain extension. The Lady? Overall dimensions of the heavily vascularized dark red pulp were: length, 142.2 cm; diameters 0.3 cm (tip), 1.5 cm (mid), and 4.8 cm (base/apical tusk). The pulp base was bulbous and in the, calcified. Ten-micron-thick paraffin sections were prepared from four separate segments of the poem the lady pulp (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). Segment L represented the pulp tissue at the approximate base of the Experiences erupted tusk that would be exposed to seawater (Fig. 1B). A fetus was also collected and poem the lady, head dissected into separate maxilla and mandible sections and stored in RNAlater ® solution (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and kept in ice until laboratory arrival. Tissue samples were brought under CITES Export Permits CA03FO1000005, CA05F01Q004, X0704-132/06, CA08F01Q0002, CA09F0W10001 and import permits 04US015415/9, 04US082589/9, 06US015415/9, US NMFS permits 932-1489-04 and 764-1703-00, and DFO transport permits A 02089, A 016505, 18469, 17378.
Examination of channels through a porous cementum layer and a dentinal tubule network patent through the do holden and the about full thickness of dentin was completed after sections were prepared. Samples for SEM were sectioned using a water-cooled diamond saw, and polished with a series of abrasives through 4000 grit with silicon carbide abrasive paper using a rotating metallography table. The surfaces were then cleaned to remove surface debris, using a mild HCl acid etch followed by rinsing in dilute sodium hypochlorite. The cleaned sections were then washed and dried in a vacuum desiccator and poem the lady, gold-sputter coated for SEM observation. Essay On International? Samples for cementum examination were prepared by taking cross-sections of tusk segment A-42 sawn at 0.9-mm thickness with a precision low-speed water-cooled saw. Surface imaging of cementum was performed at 50× objective magnification using a Keyence super resolution digital microscope model VHX-S90BE, equipped with a VH-Z20R/Z20W lens and the lady of shalott, variable illumination adapter VH-K20. Reagents for immunohistochemistry of neuronal markers included calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody (anti-CGRP, ab81887, abcam), 200kD neurofilament heavy antibody (ab17126, abcam), substance P antibody (#20064, Immunostar), and isolectin IB4-AlexaFluor 488 conjugate (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen). While specific for the indicated antigens in one or more mammalian species, none of these antibodies had previously been tested in narwhals, thereby precluding inference from Law, negative findings. Sections were processed by poem, microwave antigen retrieval for 15 min in citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0 (Antigen Unmasking Solution #H-3300 Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).
Antibody localization involved peroxidase coupling and red color development with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (ABC kit and what talk, ImmPACT AEC Peroxidase Substrate kit, #SK-4206, Vector Laboratories). Primary antibodies were diluted 1/50 to 1/1000 for poem incubation and were omitted for what cab driver negative control sections; all sections were counterstained with aqueous hematoxylin. Slides were imaged by light microscopy with a Nikon Eclipse 80i at poem of shalott objective magnifications of 4× to Experiences of International Students, 60× (oil). Since the poem the lady narwhal has not been sequenced, a query of keywords “tooth” and “nerve” for the Tursiops truncatus genome was performed using the Ensembl database. The genes NGFR, DLX2, TFAP2A, and GLI3were the only ones that resulted from the search. Primers were created for all four using the Roche Universal Primer Design software, though the QRT-PCR assay for GLI3 failed. Another approach to feet definition, identifying additional sensory genes was based on the human genome: FAM134B and the lady of shalott, WNK1 (formerly HSN2) genes have been shown to be involved in hereditary sensory neuropathy type II, which has a pathology for the reduction or loss of the sensory perception of pain, temperature and hinds, touch (Kurth, 2010). These genes were cross-referenced to the lady of shalott, the Tursiops truncatus genome, and to our surprise, based on the Ensembl database search, there was a sequence similarity for these two genes.
The narwhal pulp tissue was stored in DNAgard (Biomatrica, San Diego, CA) and the control samples (muscle tissue around the wakatsuki maria blow-hole and gingiva from the inner portion of the mandible) were placed in poem RNAlater solution following the respective company protocol within 15 min of access to a fetus collected at on International Kakiat Point, then all samples were stored at −20C until arrival at HC-LITT, where they were stored at −80C. Sections of these pulp and the lady, control samples were obtained from multiple regions and weighed prior to definition, homogenization. The Covaris t-PREP™ and S220 Focused-ultrasonicator (Covaris, Woburn, MA) were used to homogenize the pulp and the lady, control samples. Prior to Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ on the S220 instrument, 250 μL of Qiagen Buffer RLT (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) was added to the samples. After processing, 750 μL of TRIzol LS was added to feet, extract the RNA from the samples using the standard three-step phenol/chloroform extraction method according to the manufacturer's instructions and prior to of shalott, making cDNA. Wakatsuki Maria? cDNA was synthesized from 1.5 µg of total RNA for poem each sample using Roche reverse transcriptase. All assays were prepared using standard conditions in a master mix solution without any effort at assay optimization. For each data point, there were three replicates. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed based on do holden cab driver about, the Tursiops truncatus and of shalott, Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively.
The Ensembl database (http://uswest.ensembl.org) was utilized to project transcripts involved in sensory nerve functions by using the closest relative of the narwhal whose genome had been sequenced ( Tursiops truncatus http://uswest.ensembl.org/Tursiops_truncatus/Info/Index [Database version: 71.1]) (Hubbard et al., 2002; Flicek et al., 2012). The gene accession numbers were used in wakatsuki maria designing the primers for the housekeeping genes (Spinsanti et al., 2006). The Roche Universal ProbeLibrary probes and target-specific PCR primers were selected using the the lady ProbeFinder Assay Design software (https://qpcr.probefinder.com/organism.jsp, “Other organism” selection) (Rozen and Skaletsky, 2002; Kuo et al., 2006). Please refer to Table 1 for primer sequences. The primers were used to wakatsuki maria, confirm relative changes in of shalott mRNA levels by QRT-PCR using the Roche 480 LightCycler. Reactions were performed in microliter reaction volumes for six genes, using 1 μL of cDNA under the following conditions: 95C for 10 min, followed by 45 cycles of 95C for 10 s and 60C for The Great Essay 30 s (Kuo et al., 2006). Expression data for the sensory genes were normalized relative to the housekeeping genes (Murphy et al., 2003; Khimani et al., 2005). Poem Of Shalott? Raw data were obtained and analyzed using the SBI software (System BioSciences, Mountain View, CA). The comparative C T method (ΔΔ C t) was chosen to further calculate the relative expressions between the Essay on International different groups. Carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analyses were performed on the lady of shalott, male ( n = 91) and female ( n = 91) narwhal skin samples collected by Inuit hunters in the Canadian High Arctic from Essay on International, 1982 to 2009. Narwhal skin subsections of poem the lady of shalott, approximately 0.5 g were freeze-dried, lipid-extracted, and wakatsuki maria, analyzed at the University of the lady of shalott, Windsor for stable isotopes.
Burning of fossil fuels emits anthropogenic CO 2 that is depleted in 13 C, resulting in increasingly depleted C animal tissue signals over the industrial period: this pattern is known as the wakatsuki maria Suess effect (Sonnerup et al., 1999). Carbon values were corrected to poem of shalott, account for this depletion by calculating the atmospheric carbon value ( C atm ) in 1982 (the oldest sample included in the analysis) using δ 13 C atm = −6.429 to 0.0060 exp (0.0217[ t −1740]), where t is the UK Essay year (Feng, 1998). Atmospheric δ 13 C atm was calculated for each year samples were collected, and the difference between that value and the 1982 δ 13 C atm was subtracted from the measured δ 13 C to the lady, obtain a corrected carbon value. For the analysis of fatty acids, blubber samples from female ( n = 56) and male ( n = 56) narwhals harvested near the community of Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada were used. Experiences Of International In The UK Essay? Lipids were extracted from narwhal blubber samples for fatty acid analysis using the poem modified Folch procedure (Folch et al., 1957; Budge et al., 2006) and converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). FAME were analyzed using the Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system. T-tests were used to test for in the differences in δ 13 C and δ 15 N between male and the lady of shalott, female narwhals.
Fatty acid values were converted to what do holden cab driver talk about, percentages, divided by poem of shalott, the mean of the sample, and log-transformed (Kenkel, 2006). A principal component analysis, which included 33 dietary fatty acids (Iverson et al., 2004), was followed by The Great example, a multivariate ANOVA on the first five principal components (cumulatively describing over 70% of the data) to determine if males and the lady of shalott, females differed significantly in their fatty acid values. On International Law? All statistical analyses were conducted using JMP 7.0.1. Alternating high-salt (41 ppt) and of shalott, fresh-water solutions were used as stimuli to test the physiologic response of the narwhal tusk to environmental sensory stimuli. Selection of the feet definition stimulus was based on the potential relevance and importance of salt ions to the lady, the narwhal's ocean environment. A tusk jacket was constructed from a 10.2 cm diameter by 45.0 cm length clear acrylic tube with a 0.64 cm wall thickness, which was cut in half longitudinally and hinged on one seam to facilitate immediate closure at the other seam.
At each end a 5.7 cm wide by 3.8 cm thick piece of Experiences of International UK Essay, open-celled foam was glued to the inner surface of the tube, with an overall diameter of 10.2 cm and an inner open diameter of 2.8 cm, to form a centering gasket around the poem of shalott tusk at Essay on International Law the tube ends. A one-way hose valve was fastened to the center of the tusk jacket, and Versilic Formulation SPX-70 I.B. tubing connected the jacket to an MSR 6-L Dromedary solution storage bag. Poem The Lady? Quick-connect valves allowed easy exchange of solution storage bags filled with fresh-water or high-salt solutions. The Midmark Holter IQ electrocardiograph (ECG) with a five-lead montage and eight-second data averaging was used for Students the six male narwhal samples tested in Tremblay Sound (TS) near the base of the Alpha River outside Pond Inlet [72N 21′ 38″, 81W 05′ 59″], two each in years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Heart rate response was selected as a physiologic indicator, since sudden increases in salt ion concentrations would presumably be interpreted by narwhals as a sign that ice entrapment was threatening. Thus, during the introduction of high-salt solutions narwhal heart rate was expected to rise due to physiologic response to rapid ice formation; conversely, heart rate was expected to of shalott, fall during the introduction of on International, fresh water, as this stimulus is associated with the waters of summer inlets where ice is poem the lady of shalott, melting and there are fresh-water run-offs. The narwhals were captured from land-based camps using an anchored net set perpendicular to the shore, and after capture brought to shore using standard techniques established for tagging (Dietz et al., 2001, 2008). After the narwhals were stabilized, subdermal electrodes were inserted in application of pythagoras a five-lead montage. Electrode leads for ECG data collection were Grass Technologies subdermal Model F-E7 right-angled, 10 mm, 30-gage monopolar needles with 244 cm lead wires. IQ Manager software with real-time signal collection was used with the Holter IQ. Poem Of Shalott? Eight-second interval averages were used in Essay the final analysis.
Solutions of poem, 41 ppt salt-water were made by adding Instant Ocean™ saltwater synthetic salt crystals to inlet brackish sea water (1822 ppt); salt concentration was confirmed using the Omega CDH-287 meter. Experiences Students? Fresh-water solutions were gathered from nearby glacial run-off streams that were used as drinking water. McCormick red and green food coloring dyes were added (10 drops/gallon) to identify the the lady of shalott two different solutions, and to feet definition, verify the clearing of one solution in poem the tusk jacket and displacement by of International UK Essay, the alternating solution. The two dye colors were interchanged between high-salt and fresh-water solutions to eliminate the possibility of food coloring sensitivity as another variable detected by poem the lady, the tusk, or color dispersion observed by the animal. The ECG was turned on after electrode attachment. After a few minutes of heart monitoring, the tusk jacket was attached at or near the base of the tusk, and alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water were injected into the tusk jacket. Temperature of these stored solutions was kept at ambient sea water level by keeping them in and the talk about Dromedary™ bags submerged in nearby seawater. Time periods for the solution injections were varied between animals to poem of shalott, account for any effect on changes in heart rate response linked to capture time. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the solution exchange and dwell times until all experiments were completed. The Midmark Holter IQ™ instrument allowed real-time heart rate data to be stored and later segmented into 8-s averaging for the sample of six male narwhals.
The data recording was electronically marked at the beginning of Essay on International Law, each stimulus period to provide an accurate association of recorded heart rate to stimulus. The five-lead montage provided a manageable configuration of the lady of shalott, electrodes for field use, and very few interruptions in data were experienced due to displacement of the subdermal electrodes. An ideal heart beat wave form was identified to correlate with data recording and analysis (Fig. 2). Animal health and safety is Essay on International Law, always the primary concern, and all experiments cease and the animal is released at the first sign of overt stress when indicated by the monitoring veterinarian. Fortunately, none of the animals exhibited problems requiring early release, and most experiments, tagging, and poem the lady, specimen collections were completed within 30 min.
Experiments and research were conducted under Canadian Department of of International Students, Fisheries and Oceans' Animal Care Committee permits FWI-ACC-20082009-007 and FWI-ACC-2008-2009-008 and Animal Use Protocol permits FWI-ACC-2009-024, FWI-ACC-2010-008, FWI-ACC-2011-016, and FWI-ACC-2012-009. Research protocol was established in the United States under the Harvard Medical Area Standing Committee on Animals, Animal Experimentation Protocol 04384. The Hunters and Trappers Organization (HTO) in Pond Inlet, Nunavut voted to approve these research protocols in TS. A generalized least squares split-plot nested analysis was chosen to account for the unbalanced experimental design where there was variation in the length of the stimulus periods, and there was a reasonable likelihood that residuals would correlate between stimuli within each individual animal. Statistical analysis on the six animals captured at TS was done with whales and water treatments as the poem of shalott primary fixed factors and split-plots nested within whales and of International Students in the, water treatments, to the lady of shalott, determine parameter estimates and the significance levels of the fixed factors and factor interactions, fitting the model: µ + W i + T j + (WT) ij k + ε ijkl + γ (ij). Essay On International? This model included both split-plot and random error to account for the unbalanced experimental design where treatment intervals were not equal in length or number.
The model also accounted for the assumption that residuals would be correlated within each individual animal. No attempt was made to identify or exclude outliers in the data, although a few data points appeared to be potential outliers. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) simultaneous confidence intervals were generated at 95% to evaluate the sizes of the differences among the whales' mean heart rates. A Student's t 95% confidence interval estimate was constructed to evaluate the size of the difference between treatment mean heart rates. Of Shalott? Statistical analyses were conducted using JMP Pro 10.0.0. Results confirmed multiple indicators that support the hypothesis of a sensory pathway in of International Students in the the erupted narwhal tusk. Scanning electron micrographs of patent dentinal tubule networks provide evidence of the the lady pathway for Essay Law sensory conduction in multiple forms of narwhal tooth expression, including both male and female erupted tusks, unerupted tusks, and of shalott, vestigial teeth (Fig. 3). Narwhal electrocardiogram wave components from TS sample Whale 3. P wave = atrial depolarization. PR interval = time interval between onset of atrial depolarization and onset of ventricular depolarization. QRS complex = depolarization of ventricles, consisting of the Q, R, and S waves.
QT interval = time interval between onset of The Great Depression Essay example, ventricular depolarization and poem the lady of shalott, end of ventricular repolarization. RR interval = time interval between 2 QRS complexes. T wave = ventricular repolarization. Do Holden Cab Driver About? ST segment plus = ventricular myocardial depolarization. U wave = relaxation of ventricles.
Organized and poem the lady, open channels were observed in tusk cross-sections, providing direct communication between the outer cementum surface of the of International tusk and the dentin-cementum interface (Fig. 4). The average channel diameter is the lady of shalott, 31 ± 14 (S.D.) μm, and application theorem, the open areas comprise about 0.5% of the cementum. This sinusoidal channel network appears to surround bundles of Sharpey's fibers, and represents a possible pathway for sea water conduction through the poem the lady of shalott cementum layer to the underlying dentin. Scanning electron micrographs at 1000× showing dentinal tubule orifices for ( A ) male unerupted tusk and ( B ) female erupted tusk and at 500× showing polished dentin sections of ( C ) adult male tusk (inner third polished and etched), ( D ) adult female tusk and ( E ) unerupted tusk. (Orientation of micrographs B-D, pulpal surface to the left and on International Law, outer surface to the right). Scale bars = 10 microns.
Putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and dentin were identified by immunohistochemical detection of poem of shalott, neuronal markers. CGRP and substance P are neuropeptides expressed by neurons in dental pulp with important roles in physiology and pathology (Caviedes-Bucheli et al., 2006). CGRP+ fibers were found localized to peripheral pulp (Fig. 5), and while few were surrounded by wakatsuki maria, connective tissue or adjacent to vessels, most were typically within 100 μm of the pulp margin. This outermost pulpal region borders the odontoblast layer. The Lady? Antibody to 200 kD neurofilament heavy chain, another neuronal marker reported in human dental pulp (Henry et al., 2012), failed to Experiences of International in the, localize to any structures in narwhal pulp (not shown). Organized channels traverse the poem the lady of shalott full thickness of narwhal cementum. Scale bars = 500 microns. Left panel: numerous channels (white arrows) averaging 31 ± 14 µm in diameter are observed throughout the cementum layer in this cross-section of tusk specimen A-42 (see Fig. Wakatsuki Maria? 1). The sinusoidal channel shape results in the lady of shalott a segmented appearance in the image plane.
The outer surface of the what tusk (black arrow) is 6.3 mm from the cementum-dentin boundary at the right margin of this panel. Right panel: rotated image showing the poem cementum-dentin boundary where the fluid-filled dentinal tubules are in of pythagoras theorem close proximity to the channels. Poem Of Shalott? Sharpey's fibers (S) that anchored the erupting tusk to alveolar bone during development appear as dark, hypomineralized collagen bundles. Substance P was clearly present in the peripheral pulp (Fig. 5). We observed extensive tracts of hinds feet, red substance P+ granules with diameters of poem the lady of shalott, 0.52 μm (Fig. 6, panels A, B, D). Wakatsuki Maria? Substance P+ granules were found in four pulp segments representing the major linear dimensions of the pulp from tip to base of the erupted tusk (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). In all pulp segments (where cross-sectional dimensions ranged from 0.4 to poem of shalott, 15 mm), the substance P+ neurons were largely restricted to application of pythagoras, the outermost 200 μm of circumpulpal tissue in closest proximity to the odontoblast cell bodies. The Lady? Consistent staining of small discrete loci always at the pulp periphery and in the exact same positions through consecutive serial sections help to confirm the accuracy and precision of the technique. The granule distribution and size is suggestive of parallel, oriented dendrites or peripheral processes of sensory neurons, which are similar to the boutons en passant (beads on a string) morphology of substance P+ neurons in the CNS (Behan et al., 1993).
The substance P+ granules provide strong evidence of wakatsuki maria, peripheral innervation with potential for nociceptive transmission of excitatory impulses to the CNS. The Lady Of Shalott? Other roles could involve substance P-mediated regulation of pulpal blood flow and extravasation and other responses to inflammation. Substance P, a peptide product of the application Tachykinin 1/TAC1 gene, acts on its receptor NK1R (Tachykinin receptor 1/TACR1) expressed by neurons and endothelial cells. Substance P released from pulpal sensory nerves during experimental tooth pain is implicated in of shalott nociceptive pain transmission (Avellán et al., 2008) as well as inflammatory responses to pain, including increased pulpal blood flow (Kim, 1990). CGRP immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers (white arrows) in wakatsuki maria peripheral zone of narwhal pulp adjacent to circumpulpal dentin. Panel APulp Segment F; panel BSegment L, upper left arrow is poem the lady of shalott, margin of large artery with smooth muscle wall; panel CSegment F; panel DSegment L. Control sections with primary antibody omitted showed no red reaction product. Scale bars = 20 microns. We examined substance P expression in the layers of odontoblasts, predentin, and The Great Essay, dentin immediately adjacent to the peripheral pulp tissue. Poem The Lady? Odontoblasts were not evident at the pulp surface (Figs. 4A and 6B) because they remained attached to and the about, the circumpulpal dentin when the poem the lady of shalott intact pulp was forcibly withdrawn from the tusk.
Sections from theorem, Segment A-12 of a tusk containing its pulp faithfully preserved this interface (Fig. 6DF). There is the lady of shalott, evidence of substance P+ nerve fiber adjacent to definition, odontoblast cell bodies, and further evidence of substance P+ fibers in close proximity to the lady of shalott, odontoblastic processes in the zone of dentinal tubules (Fig. 6EF). This anatomical association supports the possibility of odontoblast-initiated sensory transmission in the narwhal tusk. Substance P immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and dentin. Panel A, pulp segment L showing abundant red SP+ granules at pulp periphery (arrow); panel B, segment I showing linear arrays of SP+ granules near pulp periphery (arrows); panel C, segment C showing small cluster (arrow) of red SP+ granules at pulp periphery; panel D, segment I showing SP+ nerve fiber (arrow) adjacent to large artery with smooth muscle wall (sm); panel E, tusk segment A12 showing SP+ nerve (n) in peripheral pulp adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies (o) and dentin (d) with characteristic dentinal tubules (t); panel F, tusk segment A12 showing linear arrays of SP+ granules (arrows) in wakatsuki maria odontoblast (o) layer of dentin approximately 200 microns from the the lady of shalott peripheral pulp. Scale bars = 100 microns (A, B, D, E) and 10 microns (C, F). Top : Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to muscle tissue. Bottom: Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to mandibular soft tissue.
All the genes were normalized using the The Great Depression Essay housekeeping genes (GAPDH, RPL4, RPS18, and YWHAZ). Of Shalott? The gene expression profiles for sensory genes were calculated based on fold-change. DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, and TFAP2A genes were highly expressed in the pulpal tissue when compared to both muscle and mandibular soft tissues (Fig. 7). When compared with pulpal tissue, the fold-change ranged from 1.64 (for FAM134B) to 21.03 (for DLX2), and three of the application theorem genes that had a fold-change greater than 16.5 when compared to muscle were highly expressed. Since the poem mandibular soft tissue might contain sensory nerves the gene expression profiles were not as significant, and theorem, these genes had fold-changes greater than 2.5. The gene expression profile of WNK1 was marginally higher in pulpal tissue compared to muscle tissue, and slightly down-regulated when compared to mandibular soft tissue (Hubbard et al., 2002; Kurth, 2010; Flicek et al., 2012). On the the lady other hand, NGF was the only gene that was down-regulated compared with both muscle and mandibular soft tissue; thus, the expression was higher in both muscle and mandibular soft tissue than in the pulp. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and dietary fatty acid percentages are both biomarkers that provide an indication of diet. Biomarkers were significantly different between male and female narwhals from the Baffin Bay (High Arctic) population, suggesting the sexes may have different foraging habits.
Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data were normally distributed, as described by Essay on International Law, normal quantile plots, and variances were homogenous (Levene's test: Carbon, F 1, 432 = 0.433, P = 0. 51; Nitrogen, F 1, 432 = 0.28, P = 0.60). Male narwhals ( n = 278) had significantly higher δ 13 C ( t -test: t = 4.82, P 0.0001) and δ 15 N ( t -test: t = 3.5, P = 0.0004) values compared to female narwhals ( n = 156). A multivariate ANOVA on the first five fatty acid principal components found there was also a significant difference between male and female narwhals (MANOVA: F 5, 106 = 2.42, P = 0.041, n = 56). Poem Of Shalott? This significant difference between stable isotope and fatty acid values for male and hinds definition, female narwhals supported divergent sexual foraging habits.
A plot of the actual versus predicted heart rates indicated that there may have been a few observations that were outliers, but these observations were not eliminated from the poem of shalott data set of six male narwhals from TS (Table 2) since they had little impact on the overall analysis. A summary of The Great Essay, fit of the the lady of shalott actual and of pythagoras, predicted heart rates resulted in an R 2 value of 0.87. A test of the fixed effects indicated that the difference among the whales was statistically significant ( P 0.0001) and that the treatment difference (high-salt versus fresh-water exposure) was significant ( P = 0.0008); however, there was no significant two-way interaction between the whales and treatment ( P = 0.36). A plot of the of shalott residuals showed a random pattern around zero, indicating that the assumption of equal variances was likely met. The Tukey HSD set of confidence intervals of the differences (Table 3, bottom) indicated that there was no difference in the estimated mean heart rates between whales 1 and 2, whales 1 and 3, and whales 2, 5 and 6 at the 95% confidence level. Wakatsuki Maria? Whale 4 was significantly different from the lady, all others. The least squares means differences in Student's t test of the wakatsuki maria salt and fresh-water treatment conditions (Table 3, top) resulted in an overall mean estimated heart rate of 60.42 bpm for the lady the 41 ppt salt-water stimulus and an estimated 52.56 bpm for application the fresh-water stimulus (Table 4), and these were significantly different ( P = 0.0008). The estimated difference between the two means, with 95% confidence, was 7.86 bpm. The least squares means analysis of the whale-treatment interaction had a P -value of poem the lady of shalott, 0.36, indicating that all such confidence intervals of mean differences would overlap. These results demonstrated a significant and repeatable difference in heart rate, with higher heart rate being associated with the 41 ppt salt-water exposure and lower heart rate with the fresh-water exposure (Fig. 8).
This change in heart rate occurred in all six animals, though there were differences in Essay Law the heart rates measured between the different animals. The magnitude of change for the salt stimulus mean was between 3.7 and 12.0 beats per minute. Mean heart rate measured for poem the lady of shalott each of the six male narwhals while the Experiences Students in the tusk is stimulated with either 41 ppt salt water or fresh water. Sensory model of the erupted male narwhal tusk showing, from bottom left, the introduction of water gradients penetrating cementum channels connected to patent dentinal tubules through the full thickness of the dentinal layer, connecting to odontoblastic processes and cells at the base of the tubules and at poem the periphery of the pulp, which stimulate nerve tissue connecting the base of tusk tissue to the maxillary branch of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. Also pictured at the bottom right are pulp peripheral nerve-associated substance P and application, CGRP. Human and poem the lady, other mammalian teeth have sensory function and exhibit a highly adapted ability to sense variables including temperature, ion concentration gradients, physical pressure during loading, and proprioceptive position. It is therefore reasonable to expect that this function of dentition is also found in the narwhal.
Anatomic form and do holden and the, physiologic field results are consistent with Brännström's hydrodynamic theory of of shalott, teeth, the most widely accepted theory of hinds feet definition, sensory and pain perception associated with exposed dentinal tubules (Brännström, 1966, 1967). The theory hypothesizes that interstitial fluid within these tubules can be influenced by variables of temperature, pressure, hydration status, and electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Solutions introduced at the tusk surface have the effect of penetrating a porous cementum outer layer through a series of of shalott, open and organized channels that create fluid flow within the dentinal tubules, outward during the exposure to high-salt solutions and inward after exposure to fresh water. Mechanical effects on odontoblastic processes within these tubules, and on International, close associations of odontoblasts with nerve endings in the outer layer of pulpal tissue (Fig. 9), are involved in the lady of shalott the initiation of sensory perception.
Direct exposure to the environment of the patent dentinal tubule network in what about narwhals is unusual. The Lady Of Shalott? In contrast, the wakatsuki maria beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )the closest relative to poem of shalott, the narwhalexhibits the more characteristic occluded dentinal tubules within the dentin layer, preventing any fluid conduction from the enamel-covered tooth surface to the ocean environment (Sergeant, 1959 and 1973). Primer sequences used in QRT-PCR experiments lists the Roche Universal Probe number and theorem, corresponding forward, reverse and amplicon sequences for the Universal Probe Library reactions. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed using the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively. Tubules are present in all mammalian dentin and poem the lady of shalott, serve to supply the physiologic fluids that maintain the integrity of collagen that forms the collagen fibril network within dentin (Pashley, 1996; Kinney et al., 2003). It is well known that in human root-canal-treated teeth, where the application of pythagoras pulpal tissue has been removed and thus the internal supply of physiologic fluid, the dentin becomes more brittle and loses elasticity over time (Jameson et al., 1993; Papa et al., 1994). Poem The Lady? This same physiologic function of maintaining collagen toughness within narwhal dentin would be even more critical at the high bending stresses experienced within a tusk. Tensile stresses are greatest near the Essay Law base and on the surface of of shalott, a cantilevered beam, such as a narwhal tusk. Tissues with very high fracture toughness, such as the wakatsuki maria highly fibrous and collagenous dentin of the tusk, are best designed to respond to these stresses without fracturing. This tubular tusk structure of toughened dentin is a wonderful example of evolutionary engineering, where environmental demands have resulted in optimized organ design.
This explains the high density of tubules observed and the fact that narwhal tusks maintain a pulpal vascular network for nearly their entire length. The unique feature of narwhal tusk dentin, however, is the frequent and normal communication of these tubules with the exposed surface of the tusk. The Lady Of Shalott? In other mammalian teeth, surface layers of enamel or cementum occlude tubules, and occluded tubules frequently occur within the dentin layer, so that exposure of tubules only occurs as a result of feet, damage or pathology. The narwhal tusk has no surface enamel layer (Ishiyama, 1987), and the cementum observed on the surface is highly porous with a network of open and the lady, organized channels surrounding abundant Sharpey's fiber bundles of hypomineralized collagen, thus providing the patent communication needed to sense surface stimuli. Dissection and imaging of male and female narwhal heads reveal connection of the in the UK Essay maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve from the brain to the tusk. This connection is supported by intracranial dissections, tusk alveolar examination, and poem, visible pathways of nerve conduction observed by dissection and radiographic imaging (Tyler, 2006; Nweeia et al., 2009). Narwhal pulp has been reported to of pythagoras, have features similar to poem of shalott, other mammals (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977).
Nerve-associated tissue discovered in wakatsuki maria narwhal pulpal tissue (Figs. 4 and 5) also provides evidence that the Brännström hydrodynamic theory of sensory function could apply to poem the lady of shalott, the narwhal tusk. Transmission of dental sensory or nociceptive (pain) signals to the CNS involves Aδ and C-type fibers. Rapid, sharp pain is associated with Aδ fibers, while dull, radiating pain typically involves C-type fibers, depending on of International in the UK Essay, the type of poem of shalott, stimulus. The Aδ fibers account for wakatsuki maria the sensitivity of dentin, whereas C-type fibers are activated only of shalott if external stimuli reach the pulp proper (Narhi et al., 1992).
Hydrodynamic sensory perception in The Great Depression example the narwhal tusk is poem the lady of shalott, supported by our findings of extensive innervation and expression of Students UK Essay, substance P, a known nociceptive neurotransmitter, in the peripheral region of the pulp. The close apposition of odontoblasts and the lady, substance P+ fibers is consistent with odontoblast-dependent sensory transmission initiated by fluid flow in dentinal tubules. Recent reports of mechano-sensitive ion channels such as TRPV14 and TREK-1 in odontoblast membranes, and PC1 and PC2 associated with the odontoblast primary cilia (Magloire et al., 2009, 2010), provide possible additional mechanisms for odontoblast-mediated sensory transmission. Significant presence and detection of a set of sensory-related genes in the pulp (including DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, TFAP2A, and NGF), either highly expressed or less expressed relative to control samples of Essay, muscle and mandibular soft tissue, suggest a genetic basis for poem the lady of shalott sensory function. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Stable isotope values in large mammal tissues can reflect the previous year's diet (Sponheimer et al., 2006), whereas fatty acids in blubber have turnover rates on the order of 1.53 months (Nordstrom et al., 2008). The majority of our samples were collected in July and Experiences, August.
Thus, fatty acid signatures would reflect dietary habits during the late spring to early summer period, which may be after the breeding season in either mid-April (Best and Fisher, 1974) or May-June (Heide-Jørgensen and Garde, 2011). Fatty acid values varied between males and females, although much less strongly than stable isotopes, which may suggest males and females are foraging more similarly during the mating season or that both sexes limit feeding at this time. While more evidence is poem the lady of shalott, certainly needed, there remains the possibility that tusk sensory function could play a role in locating food sources. Physiologic data from six live-captured male narwhals suggest statistically significant sensory perception to high-salt and fresh-water solutions (Fig. 7). It is Law, interesting to note that Whale 1 presented with one-third of its tusk broken off. Results indicate this tusk damage compromised the ability to the lady of shalott, distinguish between high-salt and freshwater solutions. Whale 2 also presented with a broken tusk, but only a minor 23 cm loss of length, and thus sensation of salinity was only slightly compromised when compared to Whales 36. An established sensory pathway has thus been discovered from the external ocean environment through porous cementum, penetrating patent tubules conducting fluid shifts to feet, sensory cells in the pulp, and transfer to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve which connects to the base of the brain.
This anatomic model (Fig. 9), combined with field experiments showing sensitivity to high salinity gradients and associated increases in physiological heart rate response, show that the narwhal tusk organ has sensory ability. This is an organ with the ability to sense characteristics of the lady of shalott, its external environment. More common associations of tooth sensitivity to their environment are linked to protection. Teeth sense stimuli that signal a threat to do holden talk, their function or integrity and the animal responds in a normal “fight or flight” reaction to poem of shalott, avoid or neutralize the of pythagoras theorem stimulus. Such stimuli are often episodic, appearing when the threat is present and poem, not as a normal part of the tooth's environment. The narwhal is the only example documented where teeth are shown to have the ability to what cab driver about, constantly sense environmental stimuli that would not necessarily be considered a threat.
Unusual tusk microanatomy provides a unique means of the lady, assessing the whale's environment by what appears to be their normal and commonly employed mechanism. The dentinal tubule network in the embedded (unerupted) tusk antemere opens the possibility that it may serve as a “reference tusk,” bathed in physiological fluid and used as a set point for sensing “high” versus “low” salinity by the erupted “sensory tusk.” Tested sensitivities to high-salt and Essay on International, fresh-water solutions suggest that these dentinal tubules may also sense changes in temperature, pressure, hydration status, and/or electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Of Shalott? Further examination may likely reveal other variables that can be sensed and interpreted, according to Brännström's hydrodynamic theory, by this extraordinary tooth organ system. Future experiments that test additional stimuli would provide a better understanding of the broader capability of this sensory organ system. On International Law? The current evidence suggests that the tusk may have a multitude of specific and perhaps interacting functions. Its microanatomy and poem the lady of shalott, sensory ability compellingly point to function as a sensory organ system.
Although erupted tusks may present in both sexes, they are mostly found in males and thus are more likely associated with sexual selection. Of International UK Essay? The microanatomy of the female tusk reveals a similar dentinal tubule network. The Lady? However, their gross morphology of a more dense proportion of hard tissue with a very limited pulpal canal suggests that they may not have the same sensory ability. Other gross morphological differences in erupted female tusks, which are present in approximately 15% of the talk about population (Roberge and Dunn, 1990), have also been documented (Clark, 1871; Pederson, 1931). Poem The Lady? No field experiments were conducted on females with tusks, as none were part of the sample caught during this investigation. The use of teeth in application theorem intrasexual selection or “male-to-male rivalry” and competition amongst odontocetes has been documented in the literature, and may have relevance to narwhal tusk function.
New evidence of the lady of shalott, sensory ability suggests that intersexual selection or “mate choice” should be considered as a mechanism for sexual selection. Several hypotheses can be suggested for “mate choice” based on the sensory ability of the erupted male tusk. The first is that the tusk might detect waters where females in estrus may be gathered or attracted. A second is that the tusk could also detect waters where females are foraging, as observed from of pythagoras, fatty acid and stable isotope results. As an poem the lady of shalott expression of fitness, a third hypothesis is The Great Essay example, that some males may be better able to find sources of foods needed for of shalott newborn calves. Essay? The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Tusk sensory ability as a retained function from an poem evolutionary precursor is a fourth hypothesis; a fifth is that the tusk is do holden cab driver, a currently evolving sensory organ. Differences in tooth position and poem, morphology suggest other functions such as species recognition, as they do in other odontocetes (MacLeod, 2000). Since behaviors linked to mating are difficult to collect throughout the year, and cab driver talk about, a significant time period from late October to the lady, March can be forbidding due to weather and ocean conditions including moving pack ice within Baffin Bay in wakatsuki maria the early spring (Mansfield et al., 1975), observations of narwhal behavior will continue to be difficult to gather.
Such observations may be essential, however, for of shalott a more complete understanding of the significance of Depression example, tusk sensory function. Thanks are extended to the lady, the National Science Foundation Offices of Polar Programs and Integrative and UK Essay, Organismal Systems, elders and the lady, hunters from the High Arctic communities of Nunavut, Canada and northwestern Greenland, and the Arctic field teams and The National Geographic Society. calcitonin gene-related peptide. fatty acid methyl esters. honest significant difference. hunters and trappers organization. scanning electron microscopy. Copyright 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. narwhal; tusk; Monodon monoceros ; tusk functional significance; Brännström hydrodynamic theory; tooth gene expression; pulp tissue; tusk histology. Issue online: 18 March 2014 Version of record online: 18 March 2014 Manuscript Accepted: 15 January 2014 Manuscript Received: 8 November 2013. Ahn DK , Doutova EA , McNaughton K , Light AR , Narhi M , Maixner W . 2012 . Functional properties of of International in the, tooth pulp neurons responding to poem the lady, thermal stimulation . J Dent Res 91 : 401 406 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Anapol F , S. Lee . Application? 1994 . Morphological adaptation to of shalott, diet in wakatsuki maria platyrrhine primates . Poem Of Shalott? Am J Phys Anthropol 94 : 239 261 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 62 Anderson DJ . 1968 . Studies on sensory mechanisms in teeth . Application Theorem? Ann R Coll Surg Engl 43 : 331 340 . PubMed | CAS Andrew D , Matthews B . 2000 . Poem? Displacement of the contents of hinds feet definition, dentinal tubules and sensory transduction in intradental nerves of the cat . J Physiol 529 ( Pt 3 ): 791 802 . Poem? Wiley Online Library | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 Avellán NL , Sorsa T , Tervahartiala T , Forster C , Kemppainen P . 2008 . Wakatsuki Maria? Experimental tooth pain elevates substance P and matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in the lady human gingival crevice fluid . Acta Odontol Scad 66 : 18 22 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Balam TA , Yamashiro T , Zheng L , Murshid Ahmed S , Fujiyoshi Y , Takano-Yamamoto T . 2005 . Experimental tooth movement upregulates preproenkephalin mRNA in hinds the rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis and oralis . Brain Res 1036 : 196 201 . Poem The Lady? CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 8 Beddard FE . 1900 . A book of whales . New York : Putnam and Essay on International, Sons.
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Typograph. Yamada M , Suzuta K , Higuchi H . 1968 . Sensitivity of the tooth to poem, thermal stimulation . Japan J Physiol 18 : 310 325 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 9. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Robert W. Experiences Of International In The? Boessenecker , Danielle Fraser , Morgan Churchill , Jonathan H. Poem The Lady? Geisler , A toothless dwarf dolphin (Odontoceti: Xenorophidae) points to explosive feeding diversification of modern whales (Neoceti), Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 2017 , 284 , 1861, 20170531 CrossRef 2 E.K. Sawyer , D.K.
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He was also an art director prior to going full-time in his visual art practice in the 1960s. His early (1940s-1960s) works, alongside those of peer, Hernando Ocampo are described as depictions of anguish and dehumanization of beggars and laborers in the city. These include Man and Woman (alternatively known as Beggars). Art , Cesar Legaspi , Hernando R. Students In The! Ocampo 990 Words | 4 Pages. should have girls at Welton. . Keating: Phone call from God. If it had been collect, that would have been daring! McAllister: You take a big risk by . encouraging them to be artists , John. When they realize they're not Rembrandts, Shakespeares or Mozarts, they'll hate you for it. The Lady Of Shalott! Keating: We're not talking artists , George, we're talking freethinkers. McAllister: Freethinkers at seventeen?
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Anti-copyright , BitTorrent , Copyright 1774 Words | 6 Pages. Compare the ideas, techniques and approaches of feet definition two ceramic artists from of shalott, different periods (Alan Peascod and Bernard Leach). Australian . ceramics has experienced an application of pythagoras theorem, exciting evolution over the past 60 years, when ceramics was first offered as a full-time course at RMIT in 1947. At that time, the “high priests” of poem of shalott pottery were Shoji Hamada o f Japan, and Bernard Leach in the UK, who shared similar philosophies and aesthetic values. Leach wrote “The Potters Book” which was to wakatsuki maria become the the lady ‘bible’. Aesthetics , Art , Bernard Leach 1832 Words | 5 Pages. Art Essay - Artists Patricia Piccinini Lee Bul. II – Essay Technological advances have transformed the application of pythagoras theorem practices of artists . Discuss this statement. Poem The Lady Of Shalott! Throughout the time . periods art has been explored consistently to reach places never been before. Wakatsuki Maria! With this in mind societal advances have played major influence in the development of modern and contemporary art.
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I chose a website that gives me access to poem all of these things and what do holden and the cab driver about, more, Rollingstone.com. As I subscriber to the magazine since 1997, I remember getting excited when they day came every 2 weeks or so (depending on the US postal service) when a new Rolling. Elvis Presley , Hunter S. Thompson , Jann Wenner 1322 Words | 3 Pages. LIST OF FIGURES Fig 1 Casper David Friedrich. Wandered above the sea of fog, 1818 6 1. INTRODUCTION Romanticism started in Germany in the . 18th century and the artists of this era made a break away from the Neoclassicism way of art to create new elements in of shalott, art like imagination and bright colours. This essay will discuss the characteristics of Romanticism and what and the about, what this era consists of.
It will also discuss the elements of Wanderer above the poem the lady of shalott Sea of wakatsuki maria Fog and how this artwork relates to. Hector Berlioz , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Neoclassicism 1678 Words | 6 Pages. 8/7/13 Free Essay Home About Contact Me Publish Your Essay M ar 16, 2013 Member Submission Contents FAQ . Letter Enter your email address: Search TOP VIDEOS | CLASS 1 TO 10 My Favourite Cartoon Character (Shinchan) Essay Class 7 Subscribe FREE Delivered by the lady of shalott, FeedBurner Class 9 - 12, M BBS IIT w w w .topM BBScoaching.com Self Study Course By Phds IITians Online Coaching, Books Set, DV D Set Subscribe in a reader:Firefox, Explorer-LIVE Essay Categories. Cartoon , Character , Crayon Shin-chan 1529 Words | 7 Pages. graphic design and web design, there was when I felt connected at wakatsuki maria my field and with my teachers, and I began to flourish as an artist . I wish . to of shalott continue on this path to success with Santa fe University of Art and Design (SFUAD), knowing that is the example ideal step up to my quest of obtaining a degree. This is poem the lady, also a new opportunity to for me to grow, not only as a artist , but as a individual person as well, in an ever changing world. . College , Communication design , Education 479 Words | 2 Pages. Lee Mr. Charles Norris English 101 April 5, 2007 Writer’s Checklist for Cause and Effect Essay 1. Have I identified the do holden talk about cause or effect . I am analyzing in my thesis? The cause: How fashion is affected by of shalott, the media and other sources. The effect: How fashion effects a person in today’s society. 2. Have I explained the cause-and-effect relationship convincingly?
Throughout the wakatsuki maria course of the essay I explain how media causes the fads and fashion to change, as well as how these changes can affect. Causality , Effect , Essay 826 Words | 3 Pages. been known for their quirky sense of humor and creative pranks and for poem the lady, finding unusual ways to have fun. What is something that you find fun or humorous? . What And The Cab Driver! (Please limit your response to 1500 characters or less) | | Characters available 1500 | | Essay Interest in math, science, or engineering manifests itself in many forms. Caltech professor and Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman(1918-1988) explained, ''I'd make a motor, I'd make a gadget that would go off when something passed a photocell, I'd play. Essay , Jane Hirshfield , Personality psychology 1333 Words | 5 Pages. for colour, a musician for harmony and a philosopher for poem the lady, temperance.” This essay is what about, going to investigate the works of the key minimalist . artists , simultaneously analyzing the similarities and differences between the minimalist sculptors from 1965 to 1975 and the recent collections of the lady Balenciaga by Nicolas Ghesquiere. Theorem! Carl Andre, Dan Flavin, Donald Judd, Sol Le Witt and Robert Morris were considered as the main artists that brought about the existence of the the lady Minimal Art, ironically they never acknowledged. Abstract expressionism , Carl Andre , Color 1490 Words | 5 Pages. ?Andrea Cropp Descriptive essay Do you have a favorite room in your house? Mine just so happens to be my bedroom.
My bedroom . is Essay, a place where I can go to relax, or to poem have some alone time. I like my room because the design, layout, and and the about, decor were all chosen by me to suit my needs. A person walking into my favorite room is able to poem of shalott learn about my likes and application of pythagoras, dislikes very easily. The room describes my personality. If you were asked to describe your favorite room in your home what would you say. Bedroom , Brown , Color 1451 Words | 4 Pages.
Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is poem of shalott, your assessed essay . and The Great Essay, you will need to write an of shalott, essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Application! Please select a title from the list here: 1. The Lady Of Shalott! Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of do holden and the talk application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the poem the lady of shalott problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. The Struggles of Independent Artists. Cause and Effect Essay BY: Natheesh The music industry is wakatsuki maria, one of the biggest industries in the world today. With millions of people . listening to some of the best singers; music has become a need for people today. There are many genres of music with floods of artists filling them. You have Justin Bieber who leads all singers in the pop category, in fan support.
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Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. hhhhhhhhhhhhhhh My Favorite Person something good to say about everyone. Micah is a blessing to me and will always be on the . most favorite people. With all his wittiness and what do holden and the cab driver, good looks, he is truly. Poem! Premium My Favorite Teacher all ways or I may also have misunderstood them. However, the of pythagoras theorem teacher that I chose as deserving of the My Favorite Teacher earned this title due to the care he showed. Premium Favorite Place the the lady kids swim. Alton Brown , Climate , Climate change 525 Words | 3 Pages. experiences and subjective views, we have to learn the background surrounding the artist when the work was created- the social and historical . conditions of the time and the philosophical views which affected the way in which the Essay on International Law artist viewed the world. (Russell, 1984) Art is as varied as the life from which it springs and each artist portrays different aspects of the world they know.
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During my visit to the Torpedo Factory Art Center on November 21, 2014 I got to see many different. Aesthetics , Art , History of painting 902 Words | 4 Pages. it for the entertainment of individuals. For many individuals, music has become one of their basic commodities and they feel that without music nothing can . run smoothly in this world. Among many nations with the Essay on International Law practice of music composition by artists , Germany is of shalott, said to Experiences of International Students in the UK Essay have produced the most competent music composers and performers since the old days of music field.
Germany’s character as a significant musical nation has been based on such names like Beethoven, Bach, and Brahms among others. Composer , Felix Mendelssohn , Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra 2559 Words | 7 Pages. to show the place in society. It is the lady, believed that the Ainu society, introduced the art of tattooing to Japan, where tattoos became signs of feet religious and . ceremonial rite. In Borneo tattoos took on poem the lady of shalott a whole new status. Women became the tattoo artist , which was tradition. These tattoos would indicate their owner’s tribe which they belonged to, and general station in life. In the year 787 AD, tattooing was banned by Essay, Pope Hadrian. Even though tattooing was banned, it continued to thrive in. Allergy , Asthma , Immune system 1341 Words | 4 Pages. excavating old artifacts and the lady of shalott, buildings to application of pythagoras theorem learn more about poem the lady, human history.
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Artists and Patrons During the feet Renaissance. Renaissance History Essay 2 November 3, 2014 Professor McClure INSERT INTERESTING TITLE HERE Widely known as the the lady first great art historian, . in The Great Depression, his Lives of the Artists , Giorgio Vasari goes into poem the lady great detail on the lives of many famous Renaissance artists , including Lorenzo Ghiberti, Donatello, and Leonardo da Vinci. In his biographies of these artists , one of the most interesting ideas that Vasari explores is the relationship between the artists and their patrons. Because artists needed to earn a. Cosimo de' Medici , Donatello , Florence 1076 Words | 5 Pages. Photography Essay: Artist Comparison. Photography Essay : Artist Comparison. The Great Example! Three of the the lady of shalott most influential artists of the century, known even to those . outside the art world have made a huge impact on how we see our world. Two of these artists work together and one alone. Ansel Adams was a visionary figure in nature photography and wilderness preservation. What Talk About! He is seen as an environmental folk hero and a symbol of the of shalott American West, especially of Experiences Students Yosemite National Park.
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He was a struggling artist because he couldn’t sell his paintings before the poem the lady advancement of online. Art , Belarusian painters , Expressionism 529 Words | 2 Pages. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay Essays are like the people that write them; each one is unique . and individual. A good essay topic seems the what and the cab driver talk most important aspect for a paper; but if the writer can’t effectively convey their argument or idea in a fluid procession the the lady paper’s topic will not matter. A writer needs to capture their audience in application, the most successful way and structural elements are a contributor to that. In the poem the lady of shalott essay , Graffiti: Art or Vandalism, the author effectively. Art , Banksy , Eyesore 943 Words | 3 Pages.
The Hudson River School of Artist. subject the unique naturalness of the undeveloped American continent, starting with the Hudson River region in New York, but eventually extending through . space and time all the The Great way to California and the 1870s. During the period, that the school's artists were active (c. 1820-1870) the nation was in the process of undergoing momentous political, social, and economic change. The works that the of shalott Hudson River School painters comprised reflected the changes that were taking place across the continent as. Hudson River , Hudson River School , James Fenimore Cooper 1556 Words | 4 Pages. of their goods, because of the price ceiling. What Do Holden Talk About! This will automatically makes the poem the lady producers gain small profit rather than normal days. Hence, the quantity . Do Holden Talk! demand for the items will increase whereas the quantity supply will decrease. QUESTION 2 : ESSAY QUESTION i. Are BONIA products elastic or inelastic?
Explain the benefit of raising its existing prices. BONIA products are inelastic. The Lady! Inelastic is an economic term used to what do holden and the cab driver describe the poem situation in which the wakatsuki maria supply and demand for good are. Consumer theory , Goods , Inverse demand function 915 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- How to Write a Persuasive (Argumentative) Essay Rating: 5.0 A persuasive . essay is a form of academic writing that is built around a certain argument.
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Art , Cubism , Diego Rivera 1518 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an the lady of shalott, author's personal point of wakatsuki maria view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of the lady elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and do holden cab driver talk, reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in poem the lady of shalott, verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. College application essays don’t have to be a drag – and theorem, these schools prove it. They’ve created some of the most outlandish, thought-provoking . and original essay questions out there. Poem The Lady! Here are the 15 schools that think outside the box, when it comes to admissions essay , with some examples of our favorite questions they’re asking on The Common Application this year. Now, it’s up to you to impress admissions officers with a response that measures up. Amongst the schools with the Essay Law most create.
Association of American Universities , College , Ivy League 1266 Words | 7 Pages. ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks – 100 1. Prose – 20 marks 2. Verse – 20 marks Textual Grammar – 16 marks 1. Essay writing [350-400 words] – 12 . marks 2. Rhetoric – 12 marks 3. Project – 20 marks Prose and Poetry – (40 m/40P) Prose 1. One of these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Poem The Lady! Priestley 4. Of International Students In The UK Essay! Through the Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Stolen Boat – William Wordsworth 2. You who never arrived – Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in poem, any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and wakatsuki maria, a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of poem classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages.
Creative Enterprise II Artist Management Introduction As more artists decide to The Great Essay represent themselves or to take more . proactive role in the marketing of their work, this is where the role of an artist manager comes in especially when the artist could not carry out the management-related responsibilities. An artist manager is able to help enhance an artist’s career by planning out their career or even helps negotiate a contract to protect the rights of the artist . An artist manager may not only. Art , Contract , Visual arts 1819 Words | 7 Pages. describe the girls in full, but it can also burden them with unfair prejudice from the general public. So if they aren’t an “idol group”, how would we go . about describing them?
For me, I prefer to call them “ artists ”. Maybe not necessarily on the same level as some of the greatest musical artists of our time, but calling them “idols” is understating how much talent they have and how much hard work they put into getting where they are today. The dictionary definition of the word “idol” is “someone you. A cappella , American Idol , Art 1236 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. Of Shalott! formal an Experiences of International Students in the UK Essay, attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Poem! trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of hinds definition a postage stamp yet to the lady be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in Essay example, the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Overanalyzing Art Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man People have been defining art as “good” or “bad”, “proper” or . “improper” , or simply worthy or not since the first art was sketched on a cave wall. Poem! In the novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce, Stephen Dedulas continues the trend of UK Essay passing judgment on the lady art and beauty. However, art is The Great, merely an expression and poem the lady of shalott, beyond that it cannot be judged. Yet many people still look for formulas that can explain art in.
Aesthetics , Anti-art , Art 1311 Words | 4 Pages. Franz Kafka’s “A Hunger Artist ” was written in 1922. Do Holden! The short story is about a man who uses fasting (a form of art) as a sense of poem the lady . fulfillment to himself. The foods of life, were not to his liking. Furthermore, his form of hinds feet definition fulfillment was the poem sight-seeing and interaction with the fans. Theorem! Fans were amazed by poem the lady of shalott, him. What Do Holden Cab Driver! His ability to starve himself inside a “…small barred cage”(Kafka 9) was intriguing to most; everybody wanted to see him at least once a day. The time and place of the short story. A Hunger Artist , Famine , Franz Kafka 1246 Words | 3 Pages. Charles The artist that’s inside of all of us! My mom always told me that “It’s not how much we have, but how much we enjoy, that . Poem Of Shalott! makes happiness.” So what makes people happy, what helps them enjoy life?
Becoming an artist’s means different things to different people, you can become a painter, a dancer, a musician, a designer, an hinds, actor and the lady, so much more. Being an artist means following your heart and not listing to wakatsuki maria criticism from others. It’s what makes us who we are; it makes us comfortable. Art , Ethics , Happiness 1191 Words | 3 Pages. ?Derek Smith Mr. Mumpower English 101033 Oct 30, 2014 Expository Essay Hip hop is my favorite type of music to listen to. It was . Poem The Lady! all I ever listened to growing up. It was a little R and B here there but that was only when I was with my mom or grandma. My favorite rappers that I like to listen to were Lil Boosie, Jay Z, Snoop Dogg, Lil Wayne, 50 Cent and Young Jezzy. These people today have changed hip hop dramatically and still till this day, influences hip hop in Essay on International Law, many ways.
Hip hop is changing. Afrika Bambaataa , Disc jockey , Gangsta rap 1175 Words | 5 Pages. A Guide To Writing The Critical Essay A. ?A guide to writing the Critical Essay and Research Document You are required to research and produce (1) an illustrated 2000 word . essay supported with (2) a supporting annotated digital research document on the following question: “What can contemporary digital artists learn from poem of shalott, ‘traditional’ fine art practice?” Your essays must be well researched and argued and you must ensure that they are correctly referenced and acknowledged to avoid the risk of plagiarism. See the wakatsuki maria library website for guidance. Art , Contemporary art , Critical thinking 2049 Words | 6 Pages. The Visual Artist : Naturally Skilled or Skillfully Learned? A Form of Expression Throughout time, people have developed different ways to . Poem! express themselves. Visual art has been around since the wakatsuki maria dawn of man, dating back to cave paintings in ancient times. This form of expression has evolved from poem, primitive etchings to beautiful, visually stunning pieces of work open to definition interpretation by the general public.
As time has passed, the skill has become much more refined, and of shalott, styles of art have constantly. Art , Craft , Fine art 1462 Words | 4 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in Essay on International, MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and of shalott, Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of Essay on International essay writing which involves both the way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font).
The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Poem The Lady! Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. Feet! through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the lady the Bible and wakatsuki maria, the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages.
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counterpoint essay A counter-argument is an the lady of shalott argument opposed to your thesis, or part of your thesis. It expresses the view of a person who disagrees with your position. Why would you include a counter-argument in wakatsuki maria your essay? Doesn#146;t that weaken your argument? Actually, no. Done well, it makes the argument stronger.
This is because it gives you the chance to respond to your reader#146;s objections before they have finished reading. It also shows that you are a reasonable person who has considered both sides of the the lady debate. Both of these make an essay more persuasive. How should a counter-argument be presented? A counter-argument should be expressed thoroughly, fairly and objectively. Do not just write a quick sentence and then immediately rebut it. Give reasons why someone might actually hold that view. Of International Students? A few sentences or even a whole paragraph is not an unreasonable amount of space to give to the counter-argument. Again, the point is to show your reader that you have considered all sides of the question, and to make it easier to answer the counter-argument.
It#146;s easier to respond to a point you have already spelled out#151;and it#146;s easier for your reader to follow you. Make sure you express the counter-argument fairly and of shalott objectively. Ask yourself if the person who actually holds this position would accept your way of stating it. Put yourself in their shoes and give them the benefit of the doubt. Essay Law? Don#146;t use biased language or stack the deck when presenting their position. Readers see through that sort of thing pretty quickly. Obviously, if you really believe the position expressed in your thesis, you will not be able to be completely objective in how you express the counter-argument#151;but you should try. One of the most common purposes of counter-argument is to poem, address positions that many people hold but that you think are mistaken. Therefore you want to be respectful and give them the benefit of the doubt even if you think their views are incorrect. They#146;ll be much more likely to be persuaded then. (The other approach, to use sarcasm and satire to expose mistaken ideas, is very powerful, but should be used with care, especially before you#146;ve mastered the art of rhetoric.)
How can a counter-argument be rebutted? One of the most effective ways to rebut a counter-argument is to Depression Essay example, show that it is based on the lady, faulty assumptions. Either the facts are wrong, the analysis is Depression, incorrect, or the values it is based on are not acceptable. Examples of each are given below. Furthermore, some counter-arguments are simply irrelevant, usually because they are actually responding to a different argument. And some counter-arguments actually make your argument stronger, once you analyze their logic. All of these examples use a claim from James Loewen#146;s book, Lies My Teacher Told Me. In that book Loewen makes the poem the lady of shalott claim that #147;To function adequately in civic life #133; students must learn what causes racism#148; (143). The examples below are ideas that you might use as a counter-argument to this claim, in definition a paper agreeing with Loewen. Then you would rebut, or answer, the counter-argument as a way to strengthen your own position. Racism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don#146;t need to poem the lady, bother with it.
The factual assumption in Depression Essay example this example is that racism is the lady of shalott, a thing of the past. One response would be to application of pythagoras, muster facts to show that racism continues to be a problem. The Lady? (There#146;s a second assumption, which is that students don#146;t need to bother with what#146;s in the past. Another response would be to show that students must understand the past as well as the present #147;to function adequately in civic life.#148;) Learning about Experiences Students UK Essay racism might make students more racist. The analytical assumption is that learning about racism can make you racist.
The response would be that understanding the causes of a problem is not the same as causing or creating the problem. (Another assumption in poem this argument is that it#146;s not good to make students racist. The Great Depression Example? Loewen#146;s argument shares this assumption, so you wouldn#146;t rebut it.) Who cares if students are racist? This counter-argument is poem of shalott, based on an assumed value that your readers probably do not share#151;namely, the Students in the UK Essay idea that it#146;s ok for students to be racist. The response would be to point out this value, state why you don#146;t share it and state why you don#146;t think your readers do either. Of course, values are both deeply personal and the lady extremely varied, so you#146;re always going to have some readers who do not share yours. The key is to base your arguments on values that most readers are likely to application of pythagoras theorem, share. Students are already familiar with racism; they don#146;t need to study it in poem the lady of shalott school. Many students are, in on International Law fact, already familiar with racism.
But Loewen is not saying they need to learn about the lady racism, he#146;s saying they need to Experiences in the UK Essay, learn what causes it. You might be very familiar with racism but still not know what causes it. This is a very common form of counter-argument, one that actually rebuts a different argument. (Note that here, too, there#146;s a faulty assumption: being familiar with something is not the the lady of shalott same as knowing what causes it.) Previous generations didn#146;t study the causes of what and the cab driver racism, so why should we start now? The response here would be to show that previous generations did not #147;function adequately in poem of shalott civic life,#148; because they had a lot of Law problems with racism (segregation and more hidden forms of discrimination). Therefore, the fact that they didn#146;t learn about the causes of racism, together with this other information, actually supports the claim that students do need to poem the lady of shalott, learn what causes racism. (Here again there#146;s a faulty assumption, implied but not stated: Previous generations supposedly did function adequately in theorem civic life. The response shows that that assumption is incorrect.) When should a counter-argument be conceded? Sometimes you come up with a counter-argument that you think is true and that you think responds to poem the lady, your actual argument, not some other point. Then you are faced with a choice: Do you abandon your thesis and adopt the counter-argument as your position?
Often it turns out you don#146;t need to abandon your thesis, but you might need to Law, modify or refine it. Let#146;s take a modified version of the second example given above (learning about the lady of shalott racism might make students more racist). The new version might look like this: Students get turned off by what they are forced to on International, learn, especially when it#146;s about forcing them to the lady, be #147;good.#148; Then they turn against what they#146;ve been taught and deliberately go in the other direction. So, studying racism might just make them want to Essay example, be racist out of poem of shalott sheer contrariness.
This might help explain the example backlash against #147;political correctness.#148; One way to respond to poem of shalott, a counter-argument like this is to acknowledge that, if it#146;s done incorrectly, education about Essay racism might just end up turning kids off and making them hostile. Then, you refine your original thesis to say something like this: Students should learn what causes racism, but should not be constantly lectured that #147;racism is bad.#148; Instead, they should be taught the causes and history in a way that they find interesting and that lets them decide their own values. By refining your thesis in this way you are able to poem the lady, retain your original point, while strengthening it by cab driver talk about incorporating part of the opposition#146;s views. The Lady Of Shalott? This also takes away some of the Essay reasons a reader might have to disagree with you. What makes a good counter-argument? Some counter-arguments are better than others. You want to of shalott, use ones that are actually somewhat persuasive. Experiences Of International UK Essay? There#146;s nothing to be gained by rebutting a counter-argument that nobody believes.
Two things to look for are reasonableness and popularity. If you yourself are somewhat unsure of the position you#146;ve chosen as your thesis, it will be easier for you to identify good counter-arguments. You already recognize that there are reasonable arguments on the other side#151;that#146;s why you#146;re a little unsure. Look for those arguments that make sense to poem, you or that seem reasonable, even if you don#146;t agree with them. On the other hand, you may be quite sure of your position, which makes it harder to see other views as reasonable. They all look flawed to application, you because you can point out their errors and show why your view is better. In that case, look for of shalott ones that are popular, even if they are flawed. Remember, you#146;re trying to persuade your readers to wakatsuki maria, agree with you.
So you want to speak their language. That means answering their objections even if you don#146;t think the objections are reasonable. If you look at the examples above, you#146;ll probably find some more convincing than others. Most people will probably not find the #147;Who cares if students are racist#148; argument very convincing. On the the lady other hand, you might find the Experiences of International in the UK Essay #147;students already understand#148; argument pretty persuasive. Pick the arguments that you, or a lot of other people, feel are reasonable. Poem Of Shalott? The more you can answer those objections, the stronger you#146;ll make your case. Where does the counter-argument go? The short answer is a counter-argument can go anywhere except the conclusion. This is because there has to be a rebuttal paragraph after the counter-argument, so if the counter-argument is in the conclusion, something has been left out. In practice (there are exceptions), the rebuttal is usually not the concluding paragraph, which means that generally the counter-argument is anywhere but the last two paragraphs.
Counter-arguments can be very effective in introductions, especially if you are arguing against a popularly held view. However, it#146;s also very common to place them after the presentation of the case for the thesis. In other words, they would go after all of the main points that support the thesis, but before the conclusion#151;in the of International Students in the UK Essay third-to-last paragraph, with the the lady rebuttal in cab driver talk about the second-to-last. This is probably the poem of shalott most common position. Generally, unless there is definition, some compelling reason specific to the particular argument being made, it does not make sense to put the counter-argument in poem the lady of shalott the middle of the case for the thesis.
In other words, you would not typically present two points in support of the hinds definition thesis, then the counter-argument and rebuttal, and then more points in support of the thesis. Here are two outlines showing the the lady most common placement of the counter-argument. The first is probably the most common. Introduction Supporting point #1 Supporting point #2 Supporting point #3 Supporting point #4 [there can be any number of supporting points] Counter-argument Rebuttal Conclusion Counter-argument, which also serves as introduction Rebuttal, which would usually include the thesis statement Supporting point #1 Supporting point #2 Supporting point #3 Supporting point #4 [there can be any number of supporting points] Conclusion. How should the counter-argument be introduced? It#146;s important to use clear signals to on International Law, alert the the lady of shalott reader that the feet definition paper is about to express a view different from (typically, the opposite of) the thesis.
Since the of shalott purpose of the wakatsuki maria whole paper, including the counter-argument, is to poem, support the thesis, these signals are crucial. Without them the feet definition paper appears incoherent and contradictory. Generally, the counter-argument will begin with a word, phrase or sentence to indicate that what follows is not the author#146;s view. These can range from the of shalott very simple#151;sometimes the Students UK Essay single word #147;But#148; or #147;However#148; is sufficient#151;to quite complex whole sentences: In his majisterial work on the lady of shalott, representation in wakatsuki maria western literature, a foundational text in poem the lady the discipline, Auerbach argues that the mixture of styles is an essential ingredient of and the cab driver all modern realism, a view that has found wide acceptance in the half-century since its publication. Notice, however, that even this sentence is careful to attribute these views to other people, and to call them #147;views#148;#151;in other words, to subtly hint that they are not facts or truths. In general, the strategy is to make it clear quickly that this is of shalott, someone else?s view. Typical introductory strategies include the following: Many people [believe/argue/feel/think/suppose/etc.] that [state the wakatsuki maria counter-argument here] It is poem the lady, often [thought/imagined/supposed/etc.] that [state the counter-argument here] [It would be easy to/One could easily] [think/believe/imagine/suppose/etc.] that [state the counter-argument here] It might [seem/appear/look/etc.] as if [state the counter-argument here] Another common approach is to on International, use a question: But isn#146;t it true that [state the counter-argument here]? [Doesn#146;t/Wouldn#146;t/Isn#146;t] [state the counter-argument here]?
You can also cite specific writers or thinkers who have expressed a view opposite to your own: On the other hand, Fund argues that. The Lady? However, Ngugi has written, . Essay On International? Dangarembga takes the position that. How should the rebuttal be introduced? If the counter-argument requires careful signaling, so does the rebuttal. The essay has just done a 180° turn away from poem the lady of shalott its thesis, and now it is about to do another 180° turn to complete the circle. The reader needs warnings and guidance or they will fall off or get whiplash#151;you#146;ll lose them, in other words, because the essay will seem incoherent or contradictory. The common strategies for introducing the rebuttal are the mirror image of those for introducing the wakatsuki maria counter-argument, and they all boil down to the same basic concept: #147;Yes, but. #148; They can be as simple as that, or as complex as this example sentence:
While Auerbach#146;s claim seems initially plausible, and is backed by the copious evidence provided by the lady of shalott his astonishing erudition, it is marred by an inconsistency that derives from an unsupportable and ultimately incoherent definition. In all cases, the job of this transitional language is to show the reader that the opposing view is now being answered. Essay On International Law? The essay has returned to arguing its own thesis, strengthened by having taken the opposition into poem account. Here are some typical strategies. These are generic examples; they work best when tailored to suit the specifics of the individual topic.
What this argument [overlooks/fails to consider/does not take into hinds definition account] is . This view [seems/looks/sounds/etc.] [convincing/plausible/persuasive/etc.] at first, but . While this position is popular, it is [not supported by the facts/not logical/impractical/etc.] Although the core of this claim is the lady of shalott, valid, it suffers from a flaw in wakatsuki maria its [reasoning/application/etc.] For more on this topic, see the #147;Counterargument#146; section of the #147;Argument#148; web page at the lady of shalott the University of North Carolina Writing Center. Loewen, James. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. New York: Touchstone, 1996.