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How To Write The World#8217;s Best Resume Ever. Who has the marbles to walk into hamlet, an interview and drop this resume on the table? If I was recruiting for my company and War: Essay someone submitted this resume, I would probably hire them on the spot. You can write the most thorough resume with strong action verbs, the nicest layout, with the best schools and GPA, printed on the finest paper, but if it doesn#8217;t communicate that you 1. Create value and 2. Get money, the quotes chances of you getting hired is slim. Of Being A Woman? The sizing of each section of the resume, is extremely important. 80% of your resume is about your performance and hamlet act 1 20% personality.
A lot of resumes are full of Essay Definition of burglary fluff. Hamlet? If you are overcompensating by metals filling up your resume with achievements and awards from high school or words typed per hamlet act 1, minute, it#8217;s probably a sign that the size of your impact isn#8217;t that great. Where you went to school and your GPA don#8217;t matter that much—even 4.0 won#8217;t get you hired today. The baseline is that you have finished college, created value, and some sort of leadership beyond self. As I stated in my last post #8220;How To Write A Real Resume#8221; (link here), a resume should not be a carbon copy of your job descriptions.
Instead, each bullet-point should communicate how you moved the organization or some aspect of it from Point A to Point B. Potential employers are more concerned with what you MOVED FORWARD than what you DID BACK THEN. You can even take it one step further and Obesity create a resume 2.0 (see mine here), which is more like a visual portfolio of your value. An addendum to your portfolio should include physical examples of the quality of your work (i.e. business plans or essays you#8217;ve written, presentations you#8217;ve created, an quotes, actual website or product you designed or marketed, etc). Employers trust results, not resumes. Let#8217;s face it, most resumes are lies. There is so much information asymmetry in metals, the career search process. Companies lie by posting job descriptions that don#8217;t truly communicate the quotes nature of the job and potential employees exaggerate each and every bullet-point on their resume falsely presenting their true nature. It#8217;s easier to search the dictionary for the perfect SAT word than it is for someone to actually create real value.
Employers see you as a risk until proven otherwise. Transition Metals? Every company is hiring#8230;even in economic downturn. Hamlet Act 1 Quotes? In other words, no company is tone poetry NOT hiring. When a company is down, it will hire anyone who it thinks will take it higher. The only way to bounce back from an economic downturn is to either layoff people and hope that things return to the good ol#8217; days or hire great people who will be intrapreneurs (=entrepreneurs within an existing company) and think of new ways to reposition and hamlet act 1 repurpose the company through innovation. If someone great knocks on Essay, the door, they won#8217;t shut it. But keep in mind that I don#8217;t mean great as in great person or personality—I mean someone with a great performance track record. Leading people over quotes, the past 10 years has shown me that nice people don#8217;t always produce nice results. It#8217;s sad but true—unfortunately, personality and performance aren#8217;t correlated.
Personality only gets you so far. Sometimes nice guys do finish last because they don#8217;t perform. Have you created EXTREME value? If so, how? The best resume I#8217;ve ever seen is of being Jay-Z#8217;s (click image on right to enlarge). His resume is hamlet act 1 quotes full of ways that he has created EXTREME value for companies he has started and worked with. School doesn#8217;t prepare us to create EXTREME value—it prepares us to be employees. An 8am-3pm workday become 9am-5pm and homework becomes work that you have to transition as catalysts, take home. Hamlet Quotes? Bill Gates (Microsoft) Steve Jobs (Apple), Michael Dell (Dell), Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook), Ralph Lauren, Jack Taylor (Enterprise) and others dropped out of college because they saw ways to The Forgotten War: Korea, create EXTREME value in the world that college wasn#8217;t preparing them to do.
Imagine if Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and act 1 Mark Zuckerberg followed the rest of his classmates and ended up being a consultant or investment banker. I probably wouldn#8217;t be typing this to you on a PC or a Mac and tone poetry you probably wouldn#8217;t be reading it on Facebook. I#8217;m not saying this to encourage anyone drop out—I have three degrees and quotes I value each one, because I used the free time and risk-free space to practice value creation. I failed at as catalysts, 5 business during college and hamlet grad school. Instead of The Forgotten War: Essay seeing yourself as buying an education, see it as buying two or four years of time to educate yourself and demonstrate you can create value through on-campus leadership, entrepreneurship, event execution, and internships. Even if you don#8217;t want to be an entrepreneur, you need to embrace the entrepreneurial spirit. Act 1? Everyone expects to have a job, but few are creating them. The last time I was speaking I asked everyone who intended to have a job to stand up and of course everyone stood up. Of Burglary? Next, I said sit down if you#8217;ve never created $1,000 of income in a year through any form of hamlet act 1 work and about 30% of the room sat down.
And finally I said sit down if you#8217;ve never created $1,000 of income on your own outside of a company before. Only a handful of people remained standing. This is the Korea Essay problem with our economy—everyone wants a job, but nobody is trying to create them. There is an hamlet quotes, imbalance between entrepreneurial-minded people and employee-minded people. Advantages A Woman? Companies need both, but the entrepreneurial-minded person will always get hired first and the employee-minded person will always get fired first. Hamlet Act 1 Quotes? Value is that which causes a transaction. True value forces whoever is being offered the value to make a choice. The Forgotten Korea? It causes the exchange or movement of time, money, and hamlet act 1 other forms of capital. Most people are indifferent and happy with who they are and where they are even though they may say they aren#8217;t. Value makes them admit that they want to be somewhere else, somewhere better, and then helps them actually get there.
In my book, The 8 Cylinders of Success, I define this ability to close space between point A and point B for someone else as your professional velocity. The higher your professional velocity is, the faster you will get hired. You communicate this on your resume through using point A to Definition of burglary, point B bullet points. Act 1? Unemployment is caused by bad resumes, not a bad economy. Unemployment is in Saudi not a sign of the lack of jobs in the economy. Unemployment is a sign of a lack of act 1 quotes people who have and can demonstrate that they have created value for others in the past.
That#8217;s why 50% of workers are underemployed, meaning that that they have jobs, but they aren#8217;t using their passion, they aren#8217;t reaching their full potential, and they aren#8217;t making their highest contribution to the world every day. Whereas the Childhood Obesity national unemployment rate is only 10%, underemployment is five times that. This cycle starts with your resume. So many people drive to hamlet, work, leave half themselves in Childhood in Saudi Arabia, the passenger seat, and drag the act 1 quotes other half of themselves inside the office. Fast Ethernet? Note that underemployment has nothing to do with one#8217;s salary—You can be making $200,000 a year and still be underemployed. Economies fail when too many people are underemployed. Employees get mad when companies cut dead-weight and employers get mad when they realize that they hired dead weight. Are you dead weight or are you helping your company soar? It#8217;s hard for dead weight to move, so it simply holds on hamlet, as long as it can. At the end of the The Forgotten Korea Essay day, a resume 1.0 won#8217;t get you a job and a resume 2.0 might land you an act 1 quotes, interview.
A resume is exactly what it means#8230;without the accent (#8216;) over the e. It#8217;s a document that employers use to answer the Essay of burglary question #8220;Will this person be able to resume (pronounced re-zoom) their past success here?#8221; But if you haven#8217;t been creating value where you are right now—even if you hate it—it#8217;s going to be difficult to communicate your value to another potential employer. If you hate your job, remember that you chose it by way of your past choices and hamlet act 1 quotes actions which ultimately shaped your future choices. Arabia? So seek to create value wherever you are because it will only position you to do things that you truly value in the near future. I#8217;ll leave you with the quote that inspired this blog entry. It came from quotes Jeremih#8217;s #8220;I#8217;mma Star#8221;—an unexpected place. #8220;So here I am, check my DNA. Gettin#8217; money is the Essay Definition of burglary only thing on hamlet act 1, my resume. I thought I told you I#8217;ma star#8221; Are you a star?
Is creating value in your DNA? And is gettin#8217; money evident on your resume?
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Reinventing Performance Management. Like many other companies, Deloitte realized that its system for evaluating the work of employees—and then training them, promoting them, and paying them accordingly—was increasingly out of step with its objectives. It searched for something nimbler, real-time, and hamlet act 1 more individualized—something squarely focused on fueling performance in Essay Definition of burglary the future rather than assessing it in the past. The new system will have no cascading objectives, no once-a-year reviews, and no 360-degree-feedback tools. Its hallmarks are speed, agility, one-size-fits-one, and constant learning, all underpinned by a new way of collecting reliable performance data. To arrive at this design, Deloitte drew on three pieces of evidence: a simple counting of hours, a review of hamlet act 1 quotes research in the science of ratings, and a carefully controlled study of tone poetry its own organization.
It discovered that the organization was spending close to 2 million hours a year on hamlet act 1 quotes performance management, and that “idiosyncratic rater effects” led to ratings that revealed more about team leaders than about the people they were rating. Of Burglary! From an empirical study of its own high-performing teams, the company learned that three items correlated best with high performance for quotes a team: “My coworkers are committed to doing quality work,” “The mission of our company inspires me,” and fast ethernet ethernet “I have the chance to use my strengths every day.” Of these, the third was the most powerful across the organization. With all this evidence in hamlet hand, the company set about designing a radical new performance management system, which the authors describe in this article. HBR Reprint R1504B. Not just employees but their managers and even HR departments are by now questioning the conventional wisdom of performance management, including its common reliance on cascading objectives, backward-looking assessments, once-a-year rankings and reviews, and 360-degree-feedback tools. Some companies have ditched the rankings and even annual reviews, but they haven’t found better solutions.
Deloitte resolved to design a system that would fairly recognize varying performance, have a clear view into performance anytime, and boost performance in the future. Deloitte’s new approach separates compensation decisions from day-to-day performance management, produces better insight through quarterly or per-project “performance snapshots,” and relies on The Forgotten War: Essay weekly check-ins with managers to keep performance on course. At Deloitte we’re redesigning our performance management system. This may not surprise you. Like many other companies, we realize that our current process for evaluating the work of hamlet act 1 quotes our people—and then training them, promoting them, and paying them accordingly—is increasingly out of tone poetry step with our objectives. In a public survey Deloitte conducted recently, more than half the act 1 quotes, executives questioned (58%) believe that their current performance management approach drives neither employee engagement nor high performance. They, and tone poetry we, are in need of something nimbler, real-time, and hamlet act 1 quotes more individualized—something squarely focused on fueling performance in the future rather than assessing it in the past. Leadership Development in the Age of the Algorithm. What might surprise you, however, is what we’ll include in Deloitte’s new system and what we won’t. It will have no cascading objectives, no once-a-year reviews, and no 360-degree-feedback tools. We’ve arrived at a very different and much simpler design for managing people’s performance.
Its hallmarks are speed, agility, one-size-fits-one, and tone poetry constant learning, and it’s underpinned by a new way of collecting reliable performance data. This system will make much more sense for our talent-dependent business. But we might never have arrived at hamlet act 1 its design without drawing on three pieces of Obesity in Saudi Arabia Essay evidence: a simple counting of hours, a review of research in the science of ratings, and a carefully controlled study of our own organization. More than likely, the act 1 quotes, performance management system Deloitte has been using has some characteristics in common with yours. Objectives are set for each of Definition our 65,000-plus people at the beginning of the year; after a project is finished, each person’s manager rates him or her on how well those objectives were met. The manager also comments on where the person did or didn’t excel.
These evaluations are factored into a single year-end rating, arrived at in lengthy “consensus meetings” at which groups of “counselors” discuss hundreds of people in light of their peers. Internal feedback demonstrates that our people like the hamlet act 1, predictability of this process and the fact that because each person is assigned a counselor, he or she has a representative at the consensus meetings. The vast majority of our people believe the process is fair. We realize, however, that it’s no longer the Obesity in Saudi Arabia, best design for Deloitte’s emerging needs: Once-a-year goals are too “batched” for a real-time world, and conversations about hamlet quotes year-end ratings are generally less valuable than conversations conducted in the moment about actual performance. But the advantages, need for change didn’t crystallize until we decided to act 1, count things. Specifically, we tallied the number of hours the Essay, organization was spending on hamlet quotes performance management—and found that completing the forms, holding the meetings, and creating the ratings consumed close to 2 million hours a year. As we studied how those hours were spent, we realized that many of as catalysts them were eaten up by leaders’ discussions behind closed doors about the outcomes of the process. We wondered if we could somehow shift our investment of hamlet act 1 time from talking to metals as catalysts, ourselves about hamlet ratings to tone poetry, talking to our people about their performance and hamlet act 1 careers—from a focus on the past to a focus on the future. We found that creating the tone poetry, ratings consumed close to 2 million hours a year. Our next discovery was that assessing someone’s skills produces inconsistent data.
Objective as I may try to be in evaluating you on, say, strategic thinking, it turns out that how much strategic thinking I do, or how valuable I think strategic thinking is, or how tough a rater I am significantly affects my assessment of your strategic thinking. How significantly? The most comprehensive research on hamlet quotes what ratings actually measure was conducted by Michael Mount, Steven Scullen, and Maynard Goff and published in the Journal of Applied Psychology in 2000. Their study—in which 4,492 managers were rated on certain performance dimensions by Arabia Essay two bosses, two peers, and two subordinates—revealed that 62% of the variance in the ratings could be accounted for by individual raters’ peculiarities of perception. Actual performance accounted for only 21% of the act 1 quotes, variance.
This led the researchers to conclude (in How People Evaluate Others in Organizations, edited by Manuel London): “Although it is implicitly assumed that the ratings measure the of being a woman, performance of the ratee, most of what is quotes, being measured by the ratings is the unique rating tendencies of the rater. Thus ratings reveal more about the rater than they do about the ratee.” This gave us pause. We wanted to vs gigabit, understand performance at the individual level, and we knew that the person in the best position to act 1 quotes, judge it was the immediate team leader. As Catalysts! But how could we capture a team leader’s view of quotes performance without running afoul of what the Arabia, researchers termed “idiosyncratic rater effects”? Putting Ourselves Under the hamlet act 1, Microscope.
We also learned that the defining characteristic of the Obesity in Saudi Arabia, very best teams at Deloitte is that they are strengths oriented. Their members feel that they are called upon to do their best work every day. This discovery was not based on intuitive judgment or gleaned from anecdotes and hearsay; rather, it was derived from an empirical study of our own high-performing teams. Our study built on hamlet act 1 quotes previous research. Metals! Starting in hamlet the late 1990s, Gallup conducted a multiyear examination of The Forgotten War: high-performing teams that eventually involved more than 1.4 million employees, 50,000 teams, and 192 organizations.
Gallup asked both high- and lower-performing teams questions on numerous subjects, from mission and purpose to pay and act 1 quotes career opportunities, and isolated the questions on which the high-performing teams strongly agreed and the rest did not. It found at the beginning of the study that almost all the variation between high- and lower-performing teams was explained by a very small group of items. The most powerful one proved to be “At work, I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day.” Business units whose employees chose “strongly agree” for this item were 44% more likely to earn high customer satisfaction scores, 50% more likely to have low employee turnover, and 38% more likely to be productive. You Get What You Expect From Performance Assessment. We set out to see whether those results held at Deloitte. Tone Poetry! First we identified 60 high-performing teams, which involved 1,287 employees and hamlet act 1 represented all parts of the organization. For the control group, we chose a representative sample of 1,954 employees.
To measure the conditions within a team, we employed a six-item survey. When the results were in and tallied, three items correlated best with high performance for a team: “My coworkers are committed to doing quality work,” “The mission of our company inspires me,” and “I have the Essay, chance to use my strengths every day.” Of these, the third was the most powerful across the organization. All this evidence helped bring into focus the problem we were trying to solve with our new design. We wanted to hamlet quotes, spend more time helping our people use their strengths—in teams characterized by great clarity of purpose and expectations—and we wanted a quick way to collect reliable and differentiated performance data. With this in mind, we set to work. We began by stating as clearly as we could what performance management is actually for, at least as far as Deloitte is ethernet vs gigabit ethernet, concerned. We articulated three objectives for hamlet act 1 quotes our new system. The first was clear: It would allow us to recognize performance, particularly through variable compensation.
Most current systems do this. But to recognize each person’s performance, we had to War: Korea Essay, be able to see it clearly. That became our second objective. Here we faced two issues—the idiosyncratic rater effect and the need to streamline our traditional process of evaluation, project rating, consensus meeting, and final rating. The solution to the former requires a subtle shift in our approach. Rather than asking more people for their opinion of a team member (in a 360-degree or an upward-feedback survey, for example), we found that we will need to ask only the immediate team leader—but, critically, to ask a different kind of question. People may rate other people’s skills inconsistently, but they are highly consistent when rating their own feelings and intentions.
To see performance at the individual level, then, we will ask team leaders not about the hamlet act 1, skills of each team member but about their own future actions with respect to that person. At the tone poetry, end of every project (or once every quarter for quotes long-term projects) we will ask team leaders to Essay, respond to four future-focused statements about each team member. We’ve refined the wording of these statements through successive tests, and we know that at Deloitte they clearly highlight differences among individuals and reliably measure performance. Hamlet Quotes! Here are the four: 1. Given what I know of Essay this person’s performance, and if it were my money, I would award this person the highest possible compensation increase and bonus [ measures overall performance and unique value to the organization on a five-point scale from act 1 quotes “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” ]. 2. Given what I know of Korea this person’s performance, I would always want him or her on my team [ measures ability to work well with others on the same five-point scale ]. 3. This person is at risk for low performance [ identifies problems that might harm the customer or the team on a yes-or-no basis ]. 4. This person is ready for hamlet act 1 quotes promotion today [ measures potential on fast ethernet vs gigabit ethernet a yes-or-no basis ]. In effect, we are asking our team leaders what they would do with each team member rather than what they think of act 1 quotes that individual. When we aggregate these data points over Essay Definition of burglary a year, weighting each according to the duration of a given project, we produce a rich stream of information for leaders’ discussions of what they, in turn, will do—whether it’s a question of succession planning, development paths, or performance-pattern analysis.
Once a quarter the organization’s leaders can use the new data to review a targeted subset of employees (those eligible for promotion, for example, or those with critical skills) and can debate what actions Deloitte might take to better develop that particular group. Hamlet Act 1! In this aggregation of simple but powerful data points, we see the possibility of shifting our 2-million-hour annual investment from Definition talking about the ratings to talking about our people—from ascertaining the facts of performance to considering what we should do in response to those facts. We ask leaders what they’d do with their team members, not what they think of them. In addition to this consistent—and countable—data, when it comes to compensation, we want to factor in some uncountable things, such as the act 1, difficulty of project assignments in a given year and contributions to the organization other than formal projects. So the fast vs gigabit, data will serve as the starting point for compensation, not the ending point. The final determination will be reached either by a leader who knows each individual personally or by a group of leaders looking at an entire segment of our practice and at many data points in hamlet act 1 parallel. We could call this new evaluation a rating, but it bears no resemblance, in fast generation or in use, to the ratings of the act 1 quotes, past. Because it allows us to quickly capture performance at tone poetry a single moment in time, we call it a performance snapshot. Two objectives for our new system, then, were clear: We wanted to recognize performance, and we had to be able to see it clearly.
But all our research, all our conversations with leaders on the topic of performance management, and all the feedback from our people left us convinced that something was missing. Is performance management at root more about “management” or about “performance”? Put differently, although it may be great to be able to measure and hamlet reward the performance you have, wouldn’t it be better still to be able to improve it? Our third objective therefore became to fuel performance. Essay Definition! And if the performance snapshot was an hamlet act 1 organizational tool for measuring it, we needed a tool that team leaders could use to strengthen it. How Deloitte Built a Radically Simple Performance Measure. One of the most important tools in our redesigned performance management system is the “performance snapshot.” It lets us see performance quickly and tone poetry reliably across the organization, freeing us to spend more time engaging with our people. Here’s how we created it.
We looked for measures that met three criteria. To neutralize the idiosyncratic rater effect, we wanted raters to rate their own actions, rather than the qualities or behaviors of the ratee. To generate the necessary range, the questions had to be phrased in the extreme. And to avoid confusion, each one had to act 1 quotes, contain a single, easily understood concept. We chose one about pay, one about teamwork, one about poor performance, and one about promotion. Those categories may or may not be right for The Forgotten Korea Essay other organizations, but they work for us.
We were looking for someone with vivid experience of the individual’s performance and hamlet act 1 quotes whose subjective judgment we felt was important. Metals As Catalysts! We agreed that team leaders are closest to the performance of act 1 ratees and, by Essay Definition of burglary virtue of their roles, must exercise subjective judgment. We could have included functional managers, or even ratees’ peers, but we wanted to hamlet act 1 quotes, start with clarity and metals simplicity. We then tested that our questions would produce useful data. Validity testing focuses on their difficulty (as revealed by quotes mean responses) and the range of responses (as revealed by standard deviations). Ethernet! We knew that if they consistently yielded a tight cluster of “strongly agree” responses, we wouldn’t get the differentiation we were looking for. Construct validity and criterion-related validity are also important. (That is, the hamlet act 1, questions should collectively test an underlying theory and make it possible to find correlations with outcomes measured in other ways, such as engagement surveys.) At Deloitte we live and vs gigabit ethernet work in a project structure, so it makes sense for us to produce a performance snapshot at the end of each project. For longer-term projects we’ve decided that quarterly is the act 1 quotes, best frequency.
Our goal is to strike the Childhood Obesity in Saudi Essay, right balance between tying the evaluation as tightly as possible to act 1 quotes, the experience of the performance and not overburdening our team leaders, lest survey fatigue yield poor data. We’re experimenting with this now. We want our snapshots to reveal the real-time “truth” of what our team leaders think, yet our experience tells us that if they know that team members will see every data point, they may be tempted to ethernet ethernet, sugarcoat the results to avoid difficult conversations. We know that we’ll aggregate an individual’s snapshot scores into an annual composite. But what, exactly, should we share at year’s end? We want to err on the side of sharing more, not less—to aggregate snapshot scores not only for client work but also for internal projects, along with performance metrics such as hours and sales, in hamlet act 1 the context of a group of peers—so that we can give our people the Essay, richest possible view of where they stand. Time will tell how close to that ideal we can get.
Research into hamlet quotes the practices of the best team leaders reveals that they conduct regular check-ins with each team member about advantages a woman near-term work. Hamlet! These brief conversations allow leaders to set expectations for the upcoming week, review priorities, comment on metals recent work, and provide course correction, coaching, or important new information. The conversations provide clarity regarding what is expected of each team member and why, what great work looks like, and how each can do his or her best work in act 1 quotes the upcoming days—in other words, exactly the trinity of purpose, expectations, and strengths that characterizes our best teams. Our design calls for every team leader to check in The Forgotten Korea with each team member once a week. Hamlet Act 1 Quotes! For us, these check-ins are not in tone poetry addition to the work of a team leader; they are the work of act 1 quotes a team leader. If a leader checks in less often than once a week, the team member’s priorities may become vague and aspirational, and the leader can’t be as helpful—and the conversation will shift from coaching for near-term work to advantages, giving feedback about hamlet act 1 past performance.
In other words, the content of these conversations will be a direct outcome of their frequency: If you want people to talk about how to do their best work in the near future, they need to talk often. And so far we have found in our testing a direct and metals as catalysts measurable correlation between the frequency of these conversations and the engagement of team members. Very frequent check-ins (we might say radically frequent check-ins) are a team leader’s killer app. That said, team leaders have many demands on quotes their time. We’ve learned that the best way to ensure frequency is to have check-ins be initiated by the team member—who more often than not is eager for the guidance and attention they provide—rather than by the team leader. To support both people in these conversations, our system will allow individual members to understand and explore their strengths using a self-assessment tool and then to present those strengths to their teammates, their team leader, and War: the rest of the organization. Our reasoning is twofold. First, as we’ve seen, people’s strengths generate their highest performance today and the greatest improvement in their performance tomorrow, and so deserve to be a central focus. Second, if we want to see frequent (weekly!) use of hamlet our system, we have to think of it as a consumer technology—that is, designed to be simple, quick, and above all engaging to use. Many of the successful consumer technologies of the past several years (particularly social media) are sharing technologies, which suggests that most of us are consistently interested in ourselves—our own insights, achievements, and impact. So we want this new system to provide a place for people to explore and share what is best about themselves.
This is where we are today: We’ve defined three objectives at the root of performance management—to recognize, see, and tone poetry fuel performance. We have three interlocking rituals to support them—the annual compensation decision, the quarterly or per-project performance snapshot, and hamlet act 1 the weekly check-in. Advantages Of Being! And we’ve shifted from a batched focus on hamlet act 1 the past to a continual focus on the future, through regular evaluations and frequent check-ins. As we’ve tested each element of this design with ever-larger groups across Deloitte, we’ve seen that the change can be an transition metals as catalysts evolution over time: Different business units can introduce a strengths orientation first, then more-frequent conversations, then new ways of measuring, and finally new software for monitoring performance. (See the exhibit “Performance Intelligence.”) But one issue has surfaced again and again during this work, and that’s the quotes, issue of transparency.
When an organization knows something about The Forgotten Essay us, and quotes that knowledge is captured in transition as catalysts a number, we often feel entitled to know it—to know where we stand. We suspect that this issue will need its own radical answer. It’s not the number we assign to a person; it’s the fact that there’s a single number. In the hamlet quotes, first version of our design, we kept the results of performance snapshots from the team member. We did this because we knew from the past that when an The Forgotten War: evaluation is to be shared, the responses skew high—that is, they are sugarcoated. Act 1! Because we wanted to capture unfiltered assessments, we made the Essay Definition, responses private.
We worried that otherwise we might end up destroying the very truth we sought to reveal. But what, in fact, is that truth? What do we see when we try to quantify a person? In the world of act 1 sports, we have pages of metals as catalysts statistics for hamlet act 1 quotes each player; in medicine, a three-page report each time we get blood work done; in psychometric evaluations, a battery of Obesity in Saudi Arabia tests and percentiles. At work, however, at least when it comes to quantifying performance, we try to express the act 1 quotes, infinite variety and nuance of Childhood Obesity in Saudi Arabia Essay a human being in a single number. Surely, however, a better understanding comes from conversations—with your team leader about how you’re doing, or between leaders as they consider your compensation or your career. And these conversations are best served not by hamlet a single data point but by many. If we want to do our best to tell you where you stand, we must capture as much of your diversity as we can and War: Korea Essay then talk about it. We haven’t resolved this issue yet, but here’s what we’re asking ourselves and testing: What’s the most detailed view of you that we can gather and share?
How does that data support a conversation about your performance? How can we equip our leaders to hamlet quotes, have insightful conversations? Our question now is not What is the War:, simplest view of you? but What is the richest? Our question now is not What is the simplest view of you? but What is the richest? Over the past few years the debate about performance management has been characterized as a debate about ratings—whether or not they are fair, and whether or not they achieve their stated objectives. But perhaps the issue is different: not so much that ratings fail to convey what the organization knows about hamlet each person but that as presented, that knowledge is fast ethernet ethernet, sadly one-dimensional. In the end, it’s not the particular number we assign to a person that’s the problem; rather, it’s the hamlet, fact that there is a single number. Ratings are a distillation of the transition, truth—and up until now, one might argue, a necessary one. Yet we want our organizations to know us, and hamlet we want to know ourselves at work, and that can’t be compressed into a single number. War: Essay! We now have the technology to go from a small data version of our people to a big data version of them.
As we scale up our new approach across Deloitte, that’s the problem we want to solve next. Marcus Buckingham provides performance management tools and training to organizations. Hamlet Act 1 Quotes! He is the author of several best-selling books and the forthcoming StandOut 2.0: Assess Your Strengths, Find Your Edge, Win at Work (Harvard Business Review Press). Ashley Goodall is the director of leader development at War: Korea Deloitte Services LP, based in New York.
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drawing essays Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of hamlet act 1 Donald Judd/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and The Forgotten War:, the Handmade Mark in hamlet act 1, Minimal and Conceptual Art. The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of Obesity Arabia works by hamlet act 1 artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and procedures of their predecessors.
1 In some cases the drawings on view are self-contained and autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the diagram, and tone poetry, serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the hamlet, examination of a broad array of drawings by these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative. Ethernet Vs Gigabit! While some artists tended to foreground thought and knowledge as the essential components of an artwork, others focused on the materials themselves with an equal degree of concentration. In both instances the visual and physical allure of their drawings is hamlet act 1, no less important than the ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the fast ethernet ethernet, paradoxical compatibility between the use of a priori systems and the individual touch of the artist in an artistic environment that embraced an antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of authorial intentionality and subjectivity in Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. This move is often characterized as a “cool” reaction to the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of hamlet quotes heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in the United States in the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut.
Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and the manual act of metals as catalysts creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and hamlet act 1, conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and Conceptual art to open up established understandings of aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and ethernet vs gigabit, measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to act 1 quotes reexamine the received narrative of the art of this period. Artists engaged in a variety of strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for Definition of burglary, acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and hamlet quotes, reductive. Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and The Forgotten Korea, highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and direct encounter with the artists’ thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in hamlet quotes, their work in other mediums. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and disorder that animate much of the work on view in this exhibition.
Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation. Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and ethernet, serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to hamlet act 1 free art from ethernet vs gigabit ethernet, symbolic emotional content and pretensions about its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an obscuring, even an erasure, of the artist’s hand through the use of industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by hamlet quotes these artists reintroduce the hand into the movement’s legacy. 4 By revealing the idea of the system and the plan for construction, these drawings expose the Definition of burglary, process of hamlet quotes creation and stand as vital counterpoints to the sterile perfection of the ethernet vs gigabit, standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by Minimalism in the mid-1960s is exemplified by the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and hamlet act 1 quotes, self-referential objects based on material specificity. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to Childhood Obesity the history of sculpture. The artist employed drawing to work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for the execution of standardized three-dimensional forms. Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of hamlet 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of as catalysts delegation and quotes, supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for the creation of his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of Essay Definition his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.
The artist drew incessantly and for a variety of purposes: to notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in hamlet quotes, other media; to make quick renderings of nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on tone poetry graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of his site-specific fluorescent light installations. 6 The act of drawing increased in importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by hamlet act 1 technicians. Childhood Arabia! He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of thought. Hamlet! Flavin was always careful to Obesity Arabia Essay save and date each of these works on hamlet paper in order to record the sequence in which they were made.
Drawing thus became a way of Essay projecting and hamlet quotes, planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to of being the future and to the past. 7. Figure 2. Hamlet Act 1! Dan Flavin, Four drawings for Essay, the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb.
12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb.
14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of these working drawings. Hamlet Act 1! Rendered in pen on white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . . those of advantages a woman a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over the course of a week. Flavin scribbled over hamlet act 1 quotes and rejected the earliest drawing in the series (Feb. As Catalysts! 7, 1973), while the word final is hamlet, written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at the top of the advantages of being, sheet dated February 14, 1973. Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the name of the color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words.
One drawing includes a series of dedications to friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in Flavin’s practice, referring not only to friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to political events, as in hamlet act 1, a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the young woman and men murdered in Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to their fellow students who are yet to be killed.” The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and tone poetry, political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the medium gave undue preference to the conceptual over the physical and temporal experience of their sculptural work and the ambiguities of that experience. The emphasis on hamlet quotes the gap between conception and perception, or between the Obesity in Saudi, idea of the work and the experience of its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for act 1 quotes, his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. Childhood Obesity Essay! 9 The viewer of his floor pieces, exemplary works of Minimalist art, was meant to be ambulatory: “My idea of a piece of sculpture is a road. Hamlet Quotes! That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from any particular point. Definition! . . . Most of my works—certainly the successful ones—have been ones that are in a way causeways—they cause you to make your way along them or around them or to move the spectator over them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into act 1, and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an optical relationship.
Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and of being, Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. Given the importance that he placed on both the materiality of the sculptural object and the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in the form of a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph. In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to work against the static properties of drawing in order to hamlet convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units.
In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the transition metals as catalysts, paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and quotes, blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to turn the sheet around to fast vs gigabit view it from diverse vantage points. Quotes! 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the Definition of burglary, preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in space and time. Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in hamlet act 1, graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A.
County Museum) (1971; fig. 4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of industrial sheets of steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an overview of the transition metals, form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for sculptures. Act 1! I don’t work from an a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from The Forgotten Korea Essay, drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the working process with materials and construction.” 14. Figure 4. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.
Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. He began to reverse the medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and encounters. 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in a series of sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of public art of the same title constructed in act 1, 1981 at Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the fast ethernet ethernet, sculpture fulfill the hamlet quotes, roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the piece on-site. The process of making the work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the paper. Much like the quick notations and The Forgotten Korea Essay, personal dedications found in Flavin’s work—which subvert the cold, detached character of quotes his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and Childhood Obesity in Saudi, gestural drawing works to destabilize the act 1 quotes, aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice.
Begun during the prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of vs gigabit sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of hamlet quotes mourning,” a sober look back at a project that can never again be experienced in real time and space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the transition metals, late 1960s, the hamlet act 1 quotes, emphasis on materiality and physicality of experience, evinced in both Andre’s and The Forgotten Essay, Serra’s distinctive approaches to drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Many artists attempting to extend or, in hamlet quotes, some cases, react against the principles of Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and site-specific approaches to creation. Barry Le Va’s opening up of the boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the tone poetry, pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an exploration of the ways in which a work of hamlet quotes art literally comes into being. The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in which the of burglary, importance of a work of art is understood to act 1 quotes lie more in its materiality and how it was made than in the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the performance of Essay Definition of burglary common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Act 1! Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with.
Figure 6. Essay Definition! Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the quotes, relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition. Despite the Childhood Arabia, accidental nature of Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in the form of diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations.
17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of hamlet act 1 disegno in his conception of drawing—that is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the artist’s mind at work and exposing the metals as catalysts, mechanism of the creative process. Yet Le Va’s employment of the act 1 quotes, diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and mathematics rather than with art) in works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the romantic idea of drawing as an unmediated reflection of the mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. His methodical ordering of space on the page belies the vs gigabit, accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of hamlet act 1 materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the predetermined nature of the vs gigabit ethernet, overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and quotes, precise in process and appearance, his works on Obesity in Saudi Arabia Essay paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation. In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of events occurring in the space of the hamlet act 1 quotes, gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the generative tension between the advantages of being a woman, random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. The drawing includes passages of act 1 quotes graph paper on which the artist first mapped out the distribution of pieces of of being felt and shards of glass. Le Va and many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for quotes, the transfer of ideas into form. As the artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of vs gigabit ethernet drawing, and permits the easy and immediate alignment of random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into quotes, random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink.
The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to advantages of being a woman reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is related to a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969. These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and hamlet act 1 quotes, were allowed to dissolve and fast ethernet ethernet, run into one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of hamlet act 1 quotes Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in Childhood Obesity in Saudi Arabia, the space of the gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in hamlet act 1, St. Louis, Gift of Mr. and Mrs.
Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi. William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by of being Le Va.
Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and act 1 quotes, subway drawings—as means of a woman abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to chance. To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on a subway train, places a sheet of paper on act 1 a board on vs gigabit ethernet his lap, takes a pencil in hamlet, each hand, rests the points on the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to block out all ambient sound, and lets the movement of his body in transit determine the composition of each work. Rather than relying on vision, he creates the work by assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is produced in fast ethernet ethernet, the time it takes him to get from point A to point B on the subway and hamlet act 1 quotes, is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. Fast Vs Gigabit! By drawing blind and incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the tradition of drawing as a synthesis of vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out this prescribed act, which is both meditative and hamlet act 1, absurd, the artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology.
Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only with the process of production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and space. 22 These artists often forced the spectator’s body into a confrontation with an The Forgotten Korea, object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of their own processes of perception in order to see beyond the prevailing conventions of art. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectator’s active experience of a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. Hamlet Act 1! His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and War: Korea, records motion. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of lines that move in all different directions, the act 1 quotes, subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the advantages of being, temporal experience of the artist. Systematic in approach and detached in procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the process- and systems-based approach to artistic production in still another direction. Rejecting any focus on the performing body of the artist, he elevated the working through of an idea to act 1 a position of importance, which he understood as equal to that of the resulting work.
Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Conceptual art. In his “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into visible form, then all the Childhood in Saudi Arabia Essay, steps in hamlet, the process are of importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any other aesthetic product. All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of interest.” 23 Given the War: Korea Essay, importance LeWitt placed on the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and quotes, language (visual experience and linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is a drawing of a series of tone poetry three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations.
LeWitt plotted different permutations on three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at the top of the hamlet act 1 quotes, drawing in ethernet, capital letters: “three three-part variations in which the hamlet quotes, top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of sculptural organization and tone poetry, compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in material form. The cubes are drawn in isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on quotes a hand-drawn grid. Advantages! The use of the grid emphasizes the uniformity of the hamlet act 1, cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and tone poetry, two grid squares wide. Quotes! The grid and the technical rendering give the appearance of an War: Korea, ordered sequence intended to hamlet act 1 provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of of burglary efficiency in order to subvert it, however. Act 1! 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in his system gives the lie to the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and a woman, its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. 25.
Although the hamlet quotes, serial is commonly associated with the transition metals, rationalism found in hamlet act 1 quotes, Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the War:, random or antirational. LeWitt acknowledged as much in his second text on quotes Conceptual art, “Sentences on Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Of Being! Rational judgments repeat rational judgments.
3. Hamlet Act 1 Quotes! Irrational judgments lead to new experience. 4. Formal art is essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in tone poetry, this text. Employed in this context as a means of act 1 quotes signaling the polar opposite of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of transition as catalysts action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and the subjective.
While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and experiences. Figure 10. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967. Ink on graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an hamlet, opposing limit of Childhood Arabia this practice. Quotes! Although she was part of the circle of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and socialized in New York in Essay, the 1960s and 1970s, her artistic production is often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to quotes open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by giving geometric form an organic and bodily dimension. Hesse’s work is notable for the way in which it implicates the fast ethernet, body in new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Anastasi’s subway drawings and much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in this expansion of boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of drawings using black ink on graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in the potential for accident, embarking on what has frequently been described as a form of quotes compulsive repetition and accumulation.
The artist herself gave credence to Definition of burglary such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is hamlet act 1 quotes, another way of repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 10) is exemplary of this series of works in which the tone poetry, basic element of the circle is hamlet act 1 quotes, repeated over and over to fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of Minimalism’s embrace of geometry and repetition. The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is decidedly uneven; upon transition as catalysts, closer inspection, the irregularities of each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and variation are achieved not as a function of rules of permutation, as in LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the act 1, artist’s hand on the paper. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy. Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the tone poetry, artists discussed here were working through the fallout of a modernist vision of art and quotes, society, self-consciously rethinking and challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an intensive mode of as catalysts thinking about redefining the material and conceptual conditions of art-making.
While attempting to move away from the emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the freedom of experimentation with form and materials initiated by artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of analysis and hamlet act 1, material experimentation of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States not only addressed the artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the role of the artist and audience, the dissemination of artworks in the market, and of burglary, the industrial conditions of modern society. 28 Drawing was certainly not the only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the rapid rise of the hamlet act 1, digital age and ethernet ethernet, an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and hamlet act 1, homogenization. Art has continued to adapt to these new conditions. Many of the issues that motivated the artistic struggle to work through and against modernist endgames—the idea that art is predicated on Essay a progressive model of invention or the quotes, essentialist notion that something like the absolute essence of painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to subsequent generations of artists. Fast Ethernet Vs Gigabit! 29 They no longer feel compelled to act 1 quotes grapple with the rules of in Saudi Essay such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernism’s negative and nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Rather, artists working today openly reference and hamlet act 1 quotes, revise the art historical past, including the history of modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the creative process to arrive at new forms and ideas.
Figure 12. Transition! Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on hamlet act 1 quotes paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Transition Metals As Catalysts! Dash and Jill O’Bryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and performance art, all of which emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s. They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on quotes aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and transition, individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the tasks and rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of drawing to hamlet act 1 large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the case in the work of Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and LeWitt—both artists embark on highly hermetic forms of The Forgotten War: Essay creation through which the properties of drawing are probed and hamlet, developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body. N. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and the traditional form of pencil on paper (fig. 11). Fast Ethernet Vs Gigabit Ethernet! Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in hamlet act 1, that they record the artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and the materials.
Dash produces these works by vs gigabit ethernet folding, rubbing, creasing, and refolding sheets of paper and act 1 quotes, then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to transition metals them by hand in order to highlight the progressive accumulation of wrinkles and marks. Her practice is based less on an exploration of hamlet act 1 quotes automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on War: an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. Hamlet Quotes! 12) also turns drawing into fast, a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of five years, using only pencil marks on paper. In a manner similar to the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the act 1 quotes, graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on the amount of pressure the artist exerted on of being the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and feminist agendas.
With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of art. Figure 13. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on hamlet this internal and indexical approach to as catalysts mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and hamlet quotes, nostalgia for Childhood Obesity Arabia, a sense of hamlet completeness. Her clustered diagrams of overlapping numbers and letters in black and white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig.
13) exist as both abstract representations of these events and as highly individual catalogs of time and thought whose underlying system is understood by a woman the artist alone. What exactly is at stake today in this intertwined desire for an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and hamlet, consistency to transition the disorder of daily events. Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the hamlet, world around us and the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition. In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to Essay Definition of burglary guide their work. In many instances, the act 1 quotes, pronounced engagement with seriality and Childhood Arabia, repetitive marking, charting, and diagramming offered a means not of adopting the rational logic of industry but of highlighting art’s potential escape from it.
It seems apt in today’s contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to draw, to act 1 mark, to track is embraced by artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to metals expand the capacities for invention while working to act 1 quotes regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in fast ethernet vs gigabit ethernet, the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of hamlet act 1 quotes them have been donated by the couple to The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Over the ethernet, past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and act 1, Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by emerging artists whose work is in advantages of being, line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. In recent years, several scholars have begun to rewrite the received history of postwar American art. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and act 1, the Emergence of vs gigabit Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of these projects as artists mimicked the division of labor into mental and manual realms by commissioning others to hamlet act 1 realize their ideas or, in some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether. For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
5. Judd’s drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the fabrication of sculptures from the artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of his work. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the fast vs gigabit, role that drawing played in act 1, Flavin’s artistic practice. See Emily S. Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Vs Gigabit! Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Hamlet Act 1 Quotes! Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in tone poetry, fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of it….My art springs from my desire to have things in hamlet quotes, the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60.
10. Andre, ibid., 57. 11. The drawing relates to Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967). The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12.
Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in Drawing Is Another Kind of Language: Recent American Drawings from a New York Private Collection , by Pamela M. Lee and Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. Of Being A Woman! Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and hamlet act 1 quotes, Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in War: Korea, Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. For an act 1 quotes, in-depth analysis of Serra’s approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16. Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes,” 28.
17. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and conviction of Childhood in Saudi Arabia a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is his drawings that “tell us how to read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to hamlet Draw,” press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61.
21. Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from 1966–1978,” in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. See particularly Robert Morris’s series of essays, “Notes on Sculpture” (February 1966) and “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. War:! Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.
James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to the cube and the square as “grammatical devices from which the work may proceed.” He went on to elaborate: “They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. . Quotes! . . The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in War: Korea, Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed.
Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on the Role of Drawings in Recent Art,” in Drawings of Choice from a New York Collection , ed. Hamlet Act 1 Quotes! Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an fast vs gigabit, endgame but a game comprising different matches. See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the Endgames,” in Drawing from the Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond.
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cicero book report The principal characters in quotes the Republic are Cephalus, Polemarchus, Thrasymachus, Socrates, Glaucon, and Essay Adeimantus. Cephalus appears in act 1 quotes the introduction only, Polemarchus drops at the end of the first argument, and Thrasymachus is reduced to silence at the close of the first book. The main discussion is carried on by Socrates, Glaucon, and Adeimantus. Among the War: Essay, company are Lysias (the orator) and Euthydemus, the sons of Cephalus and brothers of Polemarchus, an unknown Charmantidesthese are mute auditors; also there is Cleitophon, who once interrupts, where, as in the Dialogue which bears his name, he appears as the friend and ally of Thrasymachus. Cephalus, the patriarch of house, has been appropriately engaged in offering a sacrifice. He is the pattern of an old man who has almost done with life, and is at hamlet act 1 quotes peace with himself and with all mankind. Metals! He feels that he is drawing nearer to the world below, and act 1 quotes seems to linger around the memory of the past.
He is eager that Socrates should come to visit him, fond of the poetry of the last generation, happy in the consciousness of a well-spent life, glad at having escaped from the tyranny of youthful lusts. His love of fast ethernet conversation, his affection, his indifference to riches, even his garrulity, are interesting traits of character. Hamlet Quotes! He is not one of Essay those who have nothing to say, because their whole mind has been absorbed in quotes making money. Yet he acknowledges that riches have the Essay Definition, advantage of placing men above the temptation to dishonesty or falsehood. Hamlet Act 1! The respectful attention shown to him by Socrates, whose love of conversation, no less than the Arabia, mission imposed upon him by the Oracle, leads him to ask questions of all men, young and old alike, should also be noted. Who better suited to raise the question of justice than Cephalus, whose life might seem to be the expression of it? The moderation with which old age is hamlet act 1 quotes, pictured by Cephalus as a very tolerable portion of existence is characteristic, not only fast vs gigabit of him, but of act 1 Greek feeling generally, and contrasts with the exaggeration of Cicero in the De Senectute. The evening of life is described by Plato in the most expressive manner, yet with the fewest possible touches. As Cicero remarks (Ep. Korea Essay! ad Attic. iv.
16), the aged Cephalus would have been out of place in the discussion which follows, and hamlet act 1 quotes which he could neither have understood nor taken part in without a violation of dramatic propriety. His son and heir Polemarchus has the frankness and impetuousness of youth; he is for detaining Socrates by force in the opening scene, and will not let him off on the subject of women and children. Like Cephalus, he is tone poetry, limited in his point of view, and represents the proverbial stage of morality which has rules of life rather than principles; and he quotes Simonides as his father had quoted Pindar. But after this he has no more to say; the answers which he makes are only elicited from him by the dialectic of Socrates. He has not yet experienced the influence of the Sophists like Glaucon and Adeimantus, nor is act 1 quotes, he sensible of the necessity of refuting them; he belongs to transition metals, the pre-Socratic or pre-dialectical age. He is incapable of arguing, and is bewildered by Socrates to such a degree that he does not know what he is saying. He is hamlet, made to admit that justice is transition metals as catalysts, a thief, and that the virtues follow the analogy of the arts.
From his brother Lysias we learn that he fell a victim to the Thirty Tyrants, but no allusion is here made to his fate, nor to the circumstance that Cephalus and his family were of Syracusan origin, and had migrated from Thurii to Athens. The Chalcedonian giant, Thrasymachus, of whom we have already heard in the Phaedrus, is the personification of the Sophists, according to Plato's conception of them, in some of their worst characteristics. He is vain and blustering, refusing to discourse unless he is paid, fond of making an oration, and hoping thereby to escape the inevitable Socrates; but a mere child in argument, and unable to foresee that the next move (to use a Platonic expression) will shut him up. He has reached the stage of framing general notions, and in this respect is in hamlet quotes advance of Cephalus and Polemarchus. But he is ethernet ethernet, incapable of defending them in hamlet a discussion, and vainly tries to advantages a woman, cover his confusion in banter and insolence. Whether such doctrines as are attributed to him by Plato were really held either by him or by any other Sophist is uncertain; in the infancy of philosophy serious errors about morality might easily grow upthey are certainly put into the mouths of speakers in Thucydides; but we are concerned at present with Plato's description of him, and not with the hamlet, historical reality. The inequality of the vs gigabit, contest adds greatly to the humor of the scene.
The pompous and empty Sophist is utterly helpless in the hands of the great master of dialectic, who knows how to touch all the springs of vanity and weakness in him. He is greatly irritated by the irony of Socrates, but his noisy and imbecile rage only lays him more and more open to the thrusts of his assailant. His determination to cram down their throats, or put bodily into their souls his own words, elicits a cry of horror from Socrates. The state of his temper is quite as worthy of remark as the hamlet, process of the argument. Nothing is more amusing than his complete submission when he has been once thoroughly beaten. At first he seems to continue the discussion with reluctance, but soon with apparent good-will, and he even testifies his interest at a later stage by one or two occasional remarks. When attacked by Glaucon he is humorously protected by Socrates as one who has never been his enemy and is now his friend. Childhood In Saudi Essay! From Cicero and Quintilian and from Aristotle's Rhetoric we learn that the Sophist whom Plato has made so ridiculous was a man of note whose writings were preserved in later ages.
The play on his name which was made by his contemporary Herodicus, thou wast ever bold in battle, seems to show that the description of him is not devoid of verisimilitude. When Thrasymachus has been silenced, the two principal respondents, Glaucon and hamlet quotes Adeimantus, appear on the scene: here, as in Greek tragedy, three actors are introduced. At first sight the two sons of Ariston may seem to wear a family likeness, like the Definition of burglary, two friends Simmias and Cebes in the Phaedo. But on a nearer examination of them the similarity vanishes, and they are seen to be distinct characters. Act 1! Glaucon is the impetuous youth who can just never have enough of fechting (cf. the character of him in Xen. Mem. Definition Of Burglary! iii. 6); the man of pleasure who is acquainted with the mysteries of love; the juvenis qui gaudet canibus, and who improves the breed of animals; the lover of art and music who has all the experiences of youthful life. He is full of quickness and penetration, piercing easily below the clumsy platitudes of Thrasymachus to the real difficulty; he turns out to the light the seamy side of human life, and yet does not lose faith in the just and true. It is Glaucon who seizes what may be termed the ludicrous relation of the act 1, philosopher to in Saudi Arabia, the world, to whom a state of simplicity is a city of quotes pigs, who is always prepared with a jest when the argument offers him an opportunity, and who is ever ready to second the humor of Socrates and to appreciate the ridiculous, whether in the connoisseurs of War: Korea music, or in hamlet quotes the lovers of theatricals, or in the fantastic behavior of the citizens of democracy.
His weaknesses are several times alluded to by Socrates, who, however, will not allow him to be attacked by his brother Adeimantus. He is a soldier, and, like Adeimantus, has been distinguished at the battle of Megara. The character of metals Adeimantus is deeper and graver, and the profounder objections are commonly put into his mouth. Quotes! Glaucon is more demonstrative, and generally opens the game. Adeimantus pursues the argument further. Glaucon has more of the liveliness and quick sympathy of youth; Adeimantus has the maturer judgment of a grown-up man of the world. In the second book, when Glaucon insists that justice and injustice shall be considered without regard to fast ethernet vs gigabit ethernet, their consequences, Adeimantus remarks that they are regarded by mankind in general only for the sake of their consequences; and in a similar vein of reflection he urges at the beginning of the fourth book that Socrates falls in making his citizens happy, and is answered that happiness is not the first but the second thing, not the direct aim but the indirect consequence of the good government of a State. In the hamlet act 1 quotes, discussion about religion and mythology, Adeimantus is the respondent, but Glaucon breaks in with a slight jest, and War: carries on the conversation in a lighter tone about music and gymnastic to the end of the book. It is Adeimantus again who volunteers the criticism of quotes common sense on the Socratic method of Definition of burglary argument, and act 1 who refuses to The Forgotten Essay, let Socrates pass lightly over the question of women and children.
It is Adeimantus who is the respondent in the more argumentative, as Glaucon in hamlet act 1 quotes the lighter and more imaginative portions of the Dialogue. For example, throughout the greater part of the tone poetry, sixth book, the causes of the corruption of philosophy and the conception of the idea of good are discussed with Adeimantus. Then Glaucon resumes his place of principal respondent; but he has a difficulty in hamlet act 1 apprehending the higher education of Socrates, and makes some false hits in the course of the discussion. Once more Adeimantus returns with the allusion to Essay of burglary, his brother Glaucon whom he compares to the contentious State; in the next book he is again superseded, and Glaucon continues to the end. Thus in a succession of characters Plato represents the quotes, successive stages of morality, beginning with the Definition of burglary, Athenian gentleman of the olden time, who is followed by hamlet, the practical man of that day regulating his life by proverbs and saws; to him succeeds the wild generalization of the Sophists, and lastly come the young disciples of the great teacher, who know the sophistical arguments but will not be convinced by them, and desire to go deeper into the nature of Childhood Obesity in Saudi Arabia Essay things. These too, like Cephalus, Polemarchus, Thrasymachus, are clearly distinguished from one another. Neither in the Republic, nor in any other Dialogue of Plato, is a single character repeated. The delineation of Socrates in the Republic is not wholly consistent.
In the first book we have more of the real Socrates, such as he is act 1 quotes, depicted in The Forgotten War: the Memorabilia of Xenophon, in the earliest Dialogues of Plato, and in the Apology. He is ironical, provoking, questioning, the old enemy of the Sophists, ready to put on the mask of Silenus as well as to hamlet quotes, argue seriously. But in the sixth book his enmity towards the Sophists abates; he acknowledges that they are the representatives rather than the corrupters of the world. Advantages Of Being A Woman! He also becomes more dogmatic and constructive, passing beyond the range either of the political or the speculative ideas of the real Socrates. In one passage Plato himself seems to intimate that the time had now come for Socrates, who had passed his whole life in philosophy, to give his own opinion and not to be always repeating the notions of other men. There is no evidence that either the idea of good or the conception of a perfect State were comprehended in the Socratic teaching, though he certainly dwelt on the nature of the universal and hamlet of final causes (cp.
Xen. Mem. i. 4; Phaedo 97); and a deep thinker like him in metals as catalysts his thirty or forty years of public teaching, could hardly have falled to touch on the nature of family relations, for which there is also some positive evidence in the Memorabilia (Mem. i. 2, 51 foll.) The Socratic method is nominally retained; and every inference is either put into the mouth of the respondent or represented as the common discovery of him and Socrates. But any one can see that this is quotes, a mere form, of which the tone poetry, affectation grows wearisome as the act 1, work advances. The method of inquiry has passed into a method of teaching in which by the help of interlocutors the tone poetry, same thesis is looked at from various points of view. The nature of the process is truly characterized by Glaucon, when he describes himself as a companion who is not good for much in an investigation, but can see what he is shown, and may, perhaps, give the act 1 quotes, answer to ethernet, a question more fluently than another. Neither can we be absolutely certain that, Socrates himself taught the immortality of the soul, which is unknown to his disciple Glaucon in the Republic; nor is there any reason to suppose that he used myths or revelations of another world as a vehicle of instruction, or that he would have banished poetry or have denounced the Greek mythology. His favorite oath is retained, and a slight mention is made of the daemonium, or internal sign, which is alluded to by Socrates as a phenomenon peculiar to himself. A real element of Socratic teaching, which is more prominent in the Republic than in any of the other Dialogues of Plato, is the use of example and illustration ('taphorhtika auto prhospherhontez'): Let us apply the test of common instances. You, says Adeimantus, ironically, in the sixth book, are so unaccustomed to speak in images. And this use of examples or images, though truly Socratic in origin, is enlarged by quotes, the genius of Plato into the form of an allegory or parable, which embodies in the concrete what has been already described, or is about to be described, in the abstract.
Thus the figure of the advantages of being, cave in hamlet Book VII is a recapitulation of the divisions of knowledge in Book VI. The composite animal in Book IX is an allegory of the parts of the soul. The noble captain and the ship and the true pilot in of being a woman Book VI are a figure of the relation of the people to hamlet act 1 quotes, the philosophers in a woman the State which has been described. Other figures, such as the dog in act 1 quotes the second, third, and fourth books, or the marriage of the portionless maiden in the sixth book, or the drones and wasps in the eighth and ninth books, also form links of connection in long passages, or are used to recall previous discussions. Plato is most true to the character of metals his master when he describes him as not of this world. And with this representation of him the ideal State and the other paradoxes of the Republic are quite in accordance, though they can not be shown to have been speculations of Socrates. To him, as to other great teachers both philosophical and hamlet religious, when they looked upward, the world seemed to be the embodiment of error and evil. The common sense of mankind has revolted against this view, or has only partially admitted it. And even in Socrates himself the sterner judgment of the multitude at times passes into a sort of ironical pity or love. Men in general are incapable of philosophy, and are therefore at enmity with the philosopher; but their misunderstanding of him is unavoidable: for they have never seen him as he truly is in his own image; they are only acquainted with artificial systems possessing no native force of truthwords which admit of tone poetry many applications.
Their leaders have nothing to measure with, and are therefore ignorant of their own stature. But they are to be pitied or laughed at, not to be quarrelled with; they mean well with their nostrums, if they could only learn that they are cutting off a Hydra's head. This moderation towards those who are in error is one of the most characteristic features of Socrates in the Republic. In all the different representations of Socrates, whether of Xenophon or Plato, and the differences of the earlier or later Dialogues, he always retains the character of the unwearied and disinterested seeker after truth, without which he would have ceased to hamlet act 1, be Socrates. Leaving the characters we may now analyze the contents of the Republic, and then proceed to consider (1) The general aspects of this Hellenic ideal of the State, (2) The modern lights in which the thoughts of Plato may be read.
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