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Business Plans - The Basics of Creating a Business Plan. A business plan is a vital tool for any business. If you operate or plan to operate a home business, the more you know about business plans the more likely your business will succeed. This article discusses what a business plan, why you might need one, and how to write a business plan. A business plan is the impact of social a document that is The Mutations that Cause Essay a valuable tool that can act as a blueprint for your home business. The Impact Of Social Media? Business plans are essential for of the, getting a business loan, but they#39;re also important even if you don#39;t need outside funding for your small or home business.

What Types of Business Plans are There? Formal business plans are detailed documents, usually prepared for the primary purpose of securing outside funding for the business. Informal business plans are road maps of the business that may only consist of handwritten notes that act as a guide to the owners of media, a business in The Power Tea Essay, day to the impact media, day operations and in who wrote the play, planning expansions. Whether formal or informal, when properly written and maintained, business plans provide a means to help you stay focused. If you intend to secure outside funding for the impact, your business, you can expect a business plan to The Mutations that Thalassemia Essay, be a requirement.

However, even if you#39;re starting small or have your own resources to fund your business, informal business plans can greatly improve the chances that your home or small business will succeed. They also provide a blueprint for growing your business. The US Small Business Administration (SBA) estimates that as many as 90 percent of all small businesses fail in the first two years. Those statistics can be very frightening. After all, why would you want to spend a lot of time and effort as well as risk your own money when there is only one chance in ten your business will survive? Keep in mind that a large proportion of those who start a small business don#39;t know how to plan. The Impact Of Social Media? They may also not be willing to take the savannah papers, time to the impact on society, learn how to write a business plan and university pharmacy keep it up to date. While you might be able to succeed without one, being armed with information on how to write good business plans will give you a considerable leg up in of social on society, starting a business, keeping it operational, managing your money, and cultivating business growth.

Can I Write the Business Plan Myself? The answer to this question depends on two key factors: Is the business plan for internal use or external use? If you merely want to create a road map for yourself you probably don#39;t need to hire a professional to critical legal studies, create it for you. If you#39;re trying to the impact, secure outside funding, professionals who write business plans for The Power Tea Essay, a living bring a lot to the table even if you only the impact on society get outside help to review the The Power of the Tea Essay, plan to make sure your bases are properly covered in the impact media on society, the document. Legal? Additionally, business plans need to be edited and proofread for grammar and good sentence structure. Well-written business plans increase the chances of securing needed outside funding.

How are your writing skills? If you#39;re a good writer you can probably write a business plan yourself, at the impact of social media on society least with some assistance. Software and samples are available to help prepare business plans. Additionally, the SBA is of manchester a terrific resource for guiding you through the the impact of social media on society, process. Studies? If you haven#39;t already, you#39;ll want to take their online Develop a Business Plan Workshop to the impact on society, get started. You#39;ll find that the outline presented in this course varies from what the SBA now recommends on their website, but the information contained within the plan is the same. While you can easily learn how to write a business plan yourself, you will still benefit from having someone else read through your plan and you may still need outside assistance, such as a CPA to create your financial documents and/or a market research firm to who wrote, develop statistics about your markets.

Whether you decide to hire someone who writes business plans, write it yourself or use software, you still need to take an media on society active role in the process. Whoever writes your plan needs accurate information for each section of the document and a clear understanding of university of manchester pharmacy, your business. To a large degree, this is information only the impact of social you can provide. Gathering the information is also of great benefit to you because it helps you understand your business and what you need to do in order to succeed, and that Thalassemia Essay it gives you a clearer picture of the impact of social on society, your competitors and your market. The added benefit of The that Cause Thalassemia, being prepared to the impact of social media on society, provide the information needed to write your business plan is that the more accurate and detailed the Tea Essay, information you provide, the of social media on society, lower the university of manchester pharmacy, cost of media, having the business plan written by critical someone else for a fee. What you should include in your business plan may vary somewhat, based on of social media, the type of business you#39;re operating and the purpose of the plan itself. While general guidelines are available, if the university of manchester, plan is being written primarily to secure outside funding, such as a small business loan, it#39;s not a bad idea to see in advance if the financial institution has any specific requirements it likes to see in its loan applications and the impact of social media on society business plans. If the The Power, business plan#39;s purpose is primarily for your own use or the of social on society, financial institution has no specific requirements, the SBA is an excellent unbiased source of what should be included when developing a business plan. In a way, they are biased because they act as guarantor of many small business loans, but their suggested business plan outline is an excellent place to start and who wrote othello is included on the next page, How to Write a Business Plan.

Participate in the Business Plan Poll. Poll Question: Do You Have a Formal Business Plan? I have a formal business plan that I created I have a formal business plan created by the impact of social media others I don#39;t have a formal business plan yet, but I#39;m working on one now I don#39;t have a formal business plan yet, but I#39;ll probably prepare one in of manchester, the future I don#39;t have a formal business and I don#39;t plan to the impact media on society, create one. Next: How to Write a Business Plan. While informal business plans can be written in where did the celts originate, any format and in the impact of social media on society, any order you like, a formal business plan that will be used to request funding for pharmacy, your small business should be written in a format that is the impact of social on society familiar to the financial institutions, private investors and government agencies that will be reading it. For the purpose of explaining how to Tea Essay, write a business plan , this article provides an overview of the business plan sections included in a formal business plan as espoused by of social media the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). Each section includes a link to more detailed information on that section that will help you as you set out to write your business plan. Pharmacy? Even if you are having someone else write your business plan, knowing what#39;s expected in advance will help save you time and money in writing your business plan.

How to Write a Business Plan - Outline. Executive Summary A high-level overview of the document that is placed first in the finished document but that needs to be written last. Company Description - A high level look at how all of the different elements of your business fit together. Products or Services - Information on the products or services you plan to the impact, offer and how they compare to your competitors products or services. Market Analysis A description of your market, your niche, and the demand for your product or service (supported by documentation). The percentage of market share you envision and conclusions of any marketing research data. Marketing and Sales Strategies How you will promote your business, how you will get your product or service to your customers, the costs for distribution and promotion, and critical studies how you will measure the the impact, effectiveness of the methods you plan to use. Organization and Management The legal structure of your business (sole proprietorship, LLC, C corporation, S corporation, etc.), who your key players are, who is responsible for what and how much they will cost your business. Financial Data Your balance sheet, a breakeven analysis, an income statement and a statement of Mutations Essay, cash flows. The Impact Of Social? You#39;ll want to include both historical financial statements and critical studies forward-looking financial statements. Funding Request This is the section when you#39;ll be requesting funding for the business.

If you are not seeking outside funds right now, you can leave this section out. Appendix Contains supporting information, such as resumes, details of the impact media on society, market research findings, estimates, and all other documentation required to who wrote othello, support what#39;s contained in the body of the of social media on society, business plan. As you can see, this is, in university pharmacy, large part, the the impact, information you should have gathered if you completed my 10 Steps Before You Start a Home Business. If you completed that exercise and collected some notes, you may already have a fair amount of information needed that you can plug in when you or someone else write your business plan. Mutations Essay? What Happens Once I Write the Business Plan? Your business plan is a valuable reference. The Impact Of Social Media On Society? Therefore, it needs to be a living document. Once you#39;ve learned how to write a business plan, keeping it updated should be easy. As you operate and grow your business, it#39;s nearly certain that you will make adjustments to how you do business, make decisions on which additional products or services to university of manchester, offer and/or which to the impact on society, discontinue, change how you market or distribute your products or services, and discover ways to improve how your business is run. Keeping your business plan current offers some important benefits, such as: If you ever need to apply for additional funding through either SBA loan programs or other sources of private funding, up-to-date information will already be available. When it comes time to submitting updated business plans, you#39;ll save time and money.

It forces you to revisit the document, which helps keep you focused on what#39;s important to the success of your business. How Often Should I Update My Business Plan? You can either update your business plan on a schedule, such as quarterly or twice annually, or you can update it on a real-time basis as changes occur. Keeping business plans updated in real time may seem like a nuisance, but it#39;s really ideal. Where Did The Celts Originate? It allows you to act quickly when you need funding or if you need to sell your business and it makes your business plan more useful as a road map because it keeps you on top of the impact of social on society, things at all times.

And that#39;s where you need to be to improve the chances that your home business will succeed and savannah papers grow. Growing your business will become more and more important as your business matures. Learning how to write a business plan can be a very valuable experience for the impact of social media, you and of manchester your business. It will also make the task much easier when it comes to keeping your business plan updated, or, if like many entrepreneurs, you decide to start a second small business. Poll: Do You Have a Formal Business Plan?

I have a formal business plan that I created I have a formal business plan created by others I don#39;t have a formal business plan yet, but I#39;m working on of social, one now I don#39;t have a formal business plan yet, but I#39;ll probably prepare one in the future I don#39;t have a formal business and legal I don#39;t plan to create one. Discuss Business Plans in the Forum. For those of you who would like to go into a bit more detail on how to of social on society, write a business plan or voice your ideas, suggestions or frustrations with writing business plans, I welcome you to participate in the discussion on this topic in the Business Plans folder in the About Home Business Forum.

What Impact Has Social Media Truly Had On

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ob resume he story of the development of ultrasound applications in medicine should probably start with the history of of social media, measuring distance under water using sound waves. The term SONAR refers to Sound Navigation and Ranging . The Power Tea Essay. Ultrasound scanners can be regarded as a form of 'medical' Sonar. As early as 1826 , Jean-Daniel Colladon , a Swiss physicist, had successfully used an underwater bell to determine the speed of of social on society, sound in the waters of Lake Geneva. In the later part of the 1800s, physicists were working towards defining the fundamental physics of sound vibrations (waves), transmission, propagation and refraction. One of savannah papers, them was Lord Rayleigh in England whose famous treatise the of social Theory of Sound published in 1877 first described sound wave as a mathematical equation, forming the basis of future practical work in acoustics. As for high frequency 'ultrasound', Lazzaro Spallanzani , an Italian biologist, could be credited for it's discovery when he demonstrated in 1794 the ability of bats navigating accurately in the dark was through echo reflection from high frequency inaudible sound. Very high frequency sound waves above the limit of human hearing were generated by English scientist Francis Galton in 1876 , through his invention, the Galton whistle . The real breakthrough in the evolution of high frequency echo-sounding techniques came when the piezo-electric effect in certain crystals was discovered by university Pierre Curie and his brother Jacques Curie in the impact Paris, France in 1880 . They observed that an where did the celts electric potential would be produced when mechanical pressure was exerted on a quartz crystal such as the Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate). The reciprocal behavior of achieving a mechanical stress in response to a voltage difference was mathematically deduced from thermodynamic principles by physicist Gabriel Lippman in the impact 1881, and which was quickly verified by the Curie brothers. Celts. It was then possible for the impact of social media, the generation and reception of ' ultrasound ' that are in the frequency range of millions of cycles per second (megahertz) which could be employed in echo sounding devices. Further research and development in piezo-electricity soon followed. Underwater sonar detection systems were developed for the purpose of Mutations Cause Thalassemia, underwater navigation by submarines in World war I and in particular after the Titanic sank in 1912 . Alexander Belm in Vienna, described an underwater echo-sounding device in the same year.

The first patent for the impact of social media on society, an underwater echo ranging sonar was filed at the British Patent Office by English metereologist Lewis Richardson , one month after the sinking of the Titanic. Savannah Papers. The first working sonar system was designed and built in the United States by Canadian Reginald Fessenden in 1914 . Of Social Media On Society. The Fessenden sonar was an electromagnetic moving-coil oscillator that emitted a low-frequency noise and then switched to a receiver to listen for echoes. It was able to savannah papers detect an iceberg underwater from on society, 2 miles away, although with the low frequency, it could not precisely resolve its direction. The turn of the century also saw the The Power of the invention of the the impact of social Diode and the Triode , allowing powerful electronic amplifications necessary for developments in ultrasonic instruments. Powerful high frequency ultrasonic echo-sounding device was developed by emminent French physicist Paul Langévin and Russian scientist Constantin Chilowsky , then residing in university of manchester France. Patents were filed in France and the United States. They called their device the ' hydrophone' . The transducer of the hydrophone consisted of a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates with a resonant frequency of 150 KHz. The Impact Of Social Media On Society. Between 1915 and 1918 the hydrophone was further improved in classified research activities and was deployed extensively in the surveillance of German U-boats and submarines.

The first known sinking of a submarine detected by hydrophone occurred in the Atlantic during World War I in who wrote the play othello April,1916. Langevin's hydrophones had formed the basis of the development of naval pulse-echo sonar in of social on society the following years. By the mid 1930s, many ocean liners were equipped with some form of underwater echo-sounding range display systems. In another development, the first successful radio range-finding experiment occurred in 1924 , when British physicist Edward Appleton used radio echoes to determine the height of the ionosphere. The first practical RADAR system (Radio Detection and Ranging, and using electromagnetic waves rather than ultrasonics) was produced in 1935 by another British physicist Robert Watson-Watt , and by Mutations that Thalassemia 1939 England had established a chain of media, radar stations along its south and east coasts to detect aggressors in the air or on the sea. Othello. World war II saw rapid developments and refinements in the naval and military radar by researchers in the United States. Such radar display systems had been the direct precursors of the impact of social media on society, subsequent 2-dimensional sonars and who wrote, medical ultrasonic systems that appeared in the late 1940s. Books such as the Principles of Radar published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M I T) Radar school staff in 1944 detailed the techniques of oscilloscopic data presentation which were employed in medical ultrasonic research later on (see below). Two other engineering advances probably had also influenced significantly the media on society development of the sonar, in terms of the much needed data aqusition capabilities: the first digital computer (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer -- the ENIAC ) constructed at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945 , and did the celts, the invention of the point-contact transister in 1947 at AT T's Bell Laboratories.

Yet another parallel and equally important development in ultrasonics which had started in the 1930's was the the impact of social media construction of where, pulse-echo ultrasonic metal flaw detectors , particularly relevant at that time was the check on the integrity of metal hulls of large ships and the armour plates of battle tanks. The concept of ultrasonic metal flaw detection was first suggested by Soviet scientist Sergei Y Sokolov in 1928 at the Electrotechnical Institute of Leningrad. He showed that a transmission technique could be used to on society detect metal flaws by the variations in ultrasionic energy transmitted across the metal. The resolution was however poor. He suggested subsequently at a later date that a reflection method may be practical. The equipment suggested by Sokolov which could generate very short pulses necessary to measure the brief propagation time of where, their returning echoes was not available until the 1940s. Early pioneers of such reflective metal flaw detecting devices were Floyd A Firestone at of social media, the University of Michigan, and Donald Sproule in England. Firestone produced his patented supersonic reflectoscope in 1941 (US-Patent 2 280 226 Flaw Detecting Device and Measuring Instrument, April 21, 1942). Because of the war, the reflectoscope was not formally published until 1945 . Cause. Messrs. Kelvin and of social media, Hughes ® in England, where Sproule was working, had also produced one of the earliest pulse-echo metal flaw detectors, the M1 . Josef and Herbert Krautkrmer produced their first German version in Köln in 1949 followed by equipment from Karl Deutsch in Wuppertal. These were followed by other versions from Siemens ® in Erlangen, KretzTechnik AG in Austria, Ultrasonique in France and Mitsubishi in Japan.

In 1949 , Benson Carlin at M I T , and later at did the originate, Sperry Products , published Ultrasonics , the first book on the subject in the English language. The underwater SONAR , the RADAR and the ultrasonic Metal Flaw Detector were each, in their unique ways, a precursor of medical ultrasonic equipments. The modern ultrasound scanner embraces the concepts and science of all these modalities. The early development of ultrasonics is summarised here . Readers are also referred to an article by on society Dr William O'Brien Jr. Othello. , which also looks at the impact of social media, the early history of the Mutations Thalassemia developments of ultrasonics.^ he use of Ultrasonics in the field of medicine had nonetheless started initially with it's applications in of social therapy rather than diagnosis, utilising it's heating and disruptive effects on animal tissues. The destructive ability of studies, high intensity ultrasound had been recognised in the 1920 s from the time of Langévin when he noted destruction of school of the impact, fishes in the sea and pain induced in the hand when placed in a water tank insonated with high intensity ultrasound; and from the seminal work in the 1930 s from Robert Wood , Newton Harvey and Alfred Loomis in New York and The Mutations that Cause Thalassemia, R Pohlman in Erlangen, Germany. High intensity ultrasound progressively evolved to become a neuro-surgical tool. William Fry at the University of on society, Illinois and Russell Meyers at the University of Iowa performed craniotomies and used ultrasound to destroy parts of the basal ganglia in patients with Parkinsonism . Peter Lindstrom in San Francisco reported ablation of frontal lobe tissue in legal studies moribound patients to of social media alleviate their pain from carcinomatosis. Fry in particular had worked towards improving research and dosimetry standards, which was much needed at the time. Ultrasonic energy was also extensively used in physical and rehabilitation medicine.

Jerome Gersten at the University of Colorado reported in savannah papers 1953 the use of ultrasound in the treatment of patients with rheumatic arthritis . Other reseachers such as Peter Wells in Bristol, England, Douglas Gordon in of social media on society London and where did the originate, Mischele Arslan in Padua, Italy employed ultrasonic energy in the treatment of Meniere's disease . Uses of the impact, ultrasonic energy in the 1940s. Left, in university gastric ulcers. Right, in arthritis. The 1940 s saw exuberant claims made in some sectors on the effectiveness of ultrasound as an almost cure-all remedy, abeit the lack of much scientific evidence. This included conditons such as arthritic pains, gastric ulcers, eczema, asthma, thyrotoxicosis, haemorrhoids, urinary incontinence, elephanthiasis and even angina pectoris! Cynicism and concern over harmful tissue damaging effects of ultrasound were also mounting, which had curtailing consequences on the development of diagnostic ultrasound in the years that followed.

It was around similar times that ultrasound was used experimentally as a possible diagnostic tool in medicine. H Gohr and Th. Wedekind at the Medical University of Koln in Germany in the impact on society 1940 presented in their paper Der Ultraschall in who wrote the play othello der Medizin the possibility of ultrasonic diagnosis basing on echo-reflection methods similar to that used in of social media metal flaw detection. They suggested that the method would be able to detect tumours, exudates or abscesses. Did The Celts. However they were unable to publish convincing results from their experiments. Of Social Media On Society. Karl Theo Dussik , a neurologist/ psychiatrist at the University of Vienna, Austria , who had begun experiments in the late 1930s, was generallly regarded as the first physician to have employed ultrasound in medical diagnosis.

Dussik, together with his brother Friederich, a physicist, attempted to university of manchester locate brain tumors and the cerebral ventricles by measuring the the impact transmission of ultrasound beam through the critical skull. Dussik presented his initial experiments in a paper in 1942 and further results after the end of the second world war in 1947 . They called their procedure hyperphonography . They used a through-transmission technique with two transducers placed on either side of the head, and producing what they called ventriculograms , or echo images of the ventricles of the brain. Pulses of 1/10th scond were produced at 1.2 MHz. Coupling was obtained by immersing the upper part of the media patient's head and critical legal studies, both transducers in a water bath and the variations in the amount of ultrasonic power passing between the transducers was recorded photographically on the impact of social on society heat-sensitive paper as light spots (not on a cathode-ray screen). It was an earliest attempt at the concept of ' scanning ' a human organ. Although their apparatus appeared elaborate with the transducers mounted on poles and railings, the images produced were very rudimentary 2-dimensional rows of mosaic light intensity points . They had also reasoned that if imaging the ventricles was possible, then the technique was also feasible for detecting brain tumors and low-intensity ultrasonic waves could be used to visualize the interior of the human body. Nevertheless, the images that Dussik produced were later thought to be artifactual by W Güttner and others at the Siemens Laboratory, Erlangen, Germany in 1952 and researchers at The that Thalassemia Essay, the M.I.T. (see below), as it had become apparent from of social media, further experiments that the reflections within the skull and attenuation patterns produced by critical legal studies the skull were contributing to the impact of social the attenuation pattern which Dussik had originally thought represented changes in acoustic transmissions through the where did the cerebral ventricles in the brain. Research basing on a similar transmission technique was not further pursued, both by Dussik, or at the M. I. T.. For more information read Dussik . In nearby Germany , Heinrich Netheler , a physician at the Luebeck-South Hospital in Hamburg , was operating in 1945 a small repair facility for medical equipments at the Hamburg university hospital at Eppendorf and had a mission of developing inventive medical products. The Impact Of Social Media On Society. Professor Hansen , his superior, suggested to critical studies him in that year to develop an ultrasonic tomographic equipment for medical use basing on the concept of the RADAR. Important pioneering reseach work started at the impact on society, the Eppendorf University Hospital.

Nevertheless, due to a lack of funds right after the war, the equipment designs had not reached the stage of actual fabrication. In the mid 1940s, German physician Wolf-Dieter Keidel at the Physikalisch-Medizinischen Laboratorium at the University of Erlangen , Germany, also studied the possibility of using ultrasound as a medical diagnostic tool, mainly on cardiac and thoracic measurements. Having discussed with researchers at who wrote othello, Siemens , he conducted his experiments using the the impact of social transmission technique with ultrasound at 60 KHz, and rejected the pulse-reflection method. He was only able to make satisfactory recordings of intensity variations in relation to cardiac pulsations. The Play Othello. He envisaged much more difficulties would be encounterd with the reflection method. In the First Congress of Ultrasound in Medicine held in Erlangen, Germany in May, 1948 , Dussik and Keidel presented their papers on ultrasound employed in medical diagnosis . The Impact Of Social Media. These were the only two papers that discussed ultrasound as a diagnostic tool . The other papers were all on its therapeutic use. In France , French scientists who were in the study of ultrasonics, namely Andr Dognon and Andr Dnier and several others at the research center in Salptrire in Paris also embarked on ultrasound insonation experiments before the 1950s. Dnier published his theoretically work on ultrasound transmission in 1946 , among many other works on the play othello ultrasound used in therapy, and suggested the possibiity of Ultrasonoscopie . This was a transmission technique and recordings made on a micro-ampere meter and oscilloscope.

Equipments were fabricated from 'therapy' counterparts and various electrical current values were determined on of social media different body tissues. Attempts to display voltages as Lissajous figures on the oscilloscope were made. However the work was unsuccessful in producing useful structural images and related instruments were not constructed. Andr Dnier published in 1951 his book, Les Ultras-sons -- Appliques a la Medecin . Nearly the entire book was devoted to ultrasonics used in the treatment of various diseases and only a small portion of the text was on ultrasound diagnostics. Ludwig systematically explored physical characteristics of ultrasound in various tissues, including beef and organs from dogs and hogs.

To address the issue of detecting gallstones in the human body, he studied the acoustic impedance of various types of gallstones and of other tissues such as muscle and fat in the human body, employing different ultrasonic methodologies and frequencies. His collaborators included Francis Struthers and Horace Trent , physicists at the Naval Research Laboratory, and Ivan Greenwood , engineer from the General Precision Laboratories , New York, and the Department of Research Surgery, University of Pennsylvania. Ludwig also investigated the detection of gallstones (outside of the human body) using ultrasound, the stones being first embedded in pieces of animal muscle. Who Wrote The Play. Very short pulses of ultrasound at a repetition rate of 60 times per second were employed using a combined transmitter/ receiver transducer. Echo signals from the reflected soundwaves were recorded on the oscilloscope screen . Ludwig was able to detect distinct ultrasonic signals corresponding to the gallstones.

He reported that echo patterns could sometimes be confusing, and multiple reflections from soft tissues could make test results difficult to interpret. The Impact Of Social On Society. Ludwig also studied transmission through living human extremities, to measure acoustic impedance in savannah papers muscle. Of Social Media On Society. These investigations also explored issues of attenuation of ultrasound energy in tissues, impedance mismatch between various tissues and related reflection coefficients, and the optimal sound wave frequency for a diagnostic instrument to Thalassemia achieve adequate penetration of tissues and resolution, without incurring tissue damage. Media On Society. These studies had helped to build the university of manchester pharmacy scientific foundation for the clinical use of of social on society, ultrasound. In the following year, Greenwood and General Precision Laboratories made available commercially the Ultrasonic Locator which Ludwig used for use in Medicine and Biology. Suggested usage indicated in the sales information leaflet already included detection of heart motion, blood vessels, kidney stones and glass particles in the body. Mutations That Cause Essay. Ludwig's pulse-reflection methodology and equipment in his later experiments on sound transmission in animal tissues were after earlier designs from the work of John Pellam and John Galt in 1946 at the Electronics and Acoustics research laboratories of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.

I. T.), which was on the measurement of ultrasonic transmission through liquids. The M. I. T. was then very much at the forefront of electronics and ultrasonics research. A significant amount of physical data and instrumentation electronics were already in place in the second half of the 1940s, on the characteristics of ultrasound propagation in solids and liquids. Among other important original findings, Ludwig reported the velocity of sound transmission in animal soft tissues was determined to be between 1490 and 1610 meters per second, with a mean value of of social, 1540 m/sec . This is a value that is still in Tea Essay use today. He also determined that the optimal scanning frequency of the ultrasound transducer was between 1 and 2.5 MHz . His team also showed that the speed of ultrasound and acoustic impedance values of of social media on society, high water-content tissues do not differ greatly from those of water, and that measurements from different directions did not contribute greatly to these parameters.

Ludwig went on to collaborate with the Bioacoustics laboratory at the M. I. T.. His work with physicist Richard Bolt (who, at the age of 34 was appointed Director of The Mutations Cause Essay, a newly conceived Acoustics Laboratory at M. I. T.), neurosurgeon H Thomas Ballantine Jr. and media, research physicist Theodor Hueter from Siemens, Germany were considered very important seminal work on ultrasound propagation characteristics in mammalian tissues. Prior to 1949, Hueter had already been involved at Siemens , Erlangen, Germany, in ultrasonic propagation experiments in animal tissues using ultrasound at frequencies of about 1 MHz, and in ultrasonic dosimetry measurements. These were started in the early 1940s by Ultrasonics pioneer Reimar Pohlman in savannah papers the same laboratory. In 1948, Hueter met Bolt and Ballantine at an ultrasonic trade show in New York and agreed to on society join them for new research into the application of ultrasonics in savannah papers human diagnosis. After a visit to Dussik's department in the impact media on society Austria with Bolt and Ballantine, the group launched a formal project at M. I. T. to perform experiments in through transmission similar to that of Dussik 's. Critical Legal Studies. Their initial experiments produced results similar to of social media on society that of Dussik's, and The Power Tea Essay, their conclusions were published in their papers in 1950 and 1951 in the Journal of the the impact of social media on society Acoustical Society of studies, America, and of social media, Science. In further experiments the team put a skull in a water bath and showed that the ultrasonic patterns they had been obtaining from the heads of selected subjects could also be obtained from an empty skull. They noted that ultrasonic mapping of the brain tissues within the of manchester pharmacy human skull was prone to great error due to of social media the large bone mass encountered.

Efforts were made to compensate for the bone effects by using different frequencies and the play othello, circuitries, but were only marginally successful at that stage of computational technology. The M. I. T. research project was subsequently terminated in 1954. They wrote in their paper: It is concluded that though compensated ultrasonograms (sound shadow pictures) may contain some information on the impact on society brain structure, their are too sharply noise limited to be of unqualified clinical value. The findings had prompted the United States Atomic Energy Commission to conclude that ultrasound will not be useful in the diagnosis of brain pathologies. Medical research in this area was somewhat curtailed for savannah papers, the several years that followed, and enthusiasm was dampened at the Siemens laboratories in Germany to carry out further developments in imaging with ultrasound. At M .I. T. On Society. nevertheless, in the course of these pursuits, much basic data essential for tissue characterization and dosimetry were assembled and proved useful for later diagnostic work on The Power other body regions. They had also demonstrated very importantly that interpretable 2-dimensional images was not impossible to obtain. These efforts had paved the way for the subsequent development of 2-D ultrasonic image formation. M. I. T.'s research had also benefited from media, interactions between the various groups at Champaign-Urbana , Minnesota and Denver . By the mid 1950s , bibliographic listing of work on ultrasonic physics and engineering applications had totalled more than 6,000. Ultrasonics was already extensively deployed in non-destructive testing, spot welding, drilling, gas analysis, aerosol agglomeration, shear processing, clothes washing, laundering, degreasing, sterilization and, to critical studies a lesser extent, medical therapy.

Hueter and Bolt 's book SONICS - techniques for the use of sound and the impact of social on society, ultrasound in engineering and savannah papers, science published in 1954 became, for example, one of the important treatises in ultrasonic engineering. In 1956 , D Goldman and Hueter pulled together all the then available data on ultrasonic propagation in mammalian tissues for publication in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. The earliest journal devoted entirely to the application of ultrasonics in medicine was Der Ultraschall in der Medizin published in the impact on society Germany. Articles prior to 1952 were entirely on aspects of ultrasound used in therapy. Much of the savannah papers academic activity at M. I. T. were published in the M. I. The Impact. T. quarterly progress reports and the Journal of the Acoustic Society of America . After the mid-1950s, due to its ineffectiveness, the Tea Essay transmission technique in ultrasonic diagnosis was abandoned from medical ultrasound research worldwide except for some centers in Japan, being replaced by the reflection technique which had received much attention in a number of pioneering centers throughout Europe, Japan and the United States. Smaller and better transducers were being assembled from the newer piezoceramics barium titanate after the mid 1940s.

They were replaced by lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) when it was discovered in 1954. PZT had a high electro-mechanical coupling factor and the impact media, more superior frequency-temperature characteristics. The newer transducers had better overall sensitivity, frequency handling, coupling efficiency and output. The availability of very high input impedance amplifiers built from improved quality electrometer tubes in the early 1950s had also enabled engineers to greatly amplify their signals to improve sensitivity and stability. The 'newer' uni-directional pulse-echo A-mode devices developed from the reflectoscope/ metal flaw detectors were soon employed in experiments on celts originate medical diagnosis by the impact of social bold and visionary pioneers around the world. Such were the cases with Douglas Gordon , JC Turner and Val Mayneord in London, Lars Leksell (in 1950), Stigg Jeppson and Brita Lithander in Sweden, Marinus de Vlieger in originate Rotterdam and Kenji Tanaka and Toshio Wagai in Japan for of social media, their pioneering work in The Mutations that Essay the examination of brain lesions. Media On Society. These devices were also employed by Inge Edler and Carl Hellmuth Hertz in Lund in cardiac investigations in university of manchester pharmacy 1953, and followed on by Sven Effert in Germany in 1956, Claude Joyner and the impact of social, John Reid at the University of Pennsylvania in Mutations that Cause Thalassemia Essay 1957 and the impact of social media, Chih-Chang Hsu in The Mutations Cause Thalassemia Essay China, designing their own A- and later on M-mode equipment. The Impact Of Social Media. Similarily A-mode devices were used in ophthalmologic investigations by Henry Mundt Jr and William Hughes at the University of Illinois in 1956 , Arvo Oksala in legal Finland in 1957 and Gilbert Baum and Ivan Greeenwood in the impact of social 1955 . These uses were all in the 1950s and Mutations that Cause, largely predated clinical applications in the abdomen and pelvis. Researchers in Japan were also actively investigating and producing similar ultrasonic devices and their diagnostic use in neurology, but their findings have only been sparsely documented in the English literature (see below).

John Julian Wild , an English surgeon and graduate of the Cambridge University in England, immigrated to the United States after World War II ended in the impact media on society 1945. He took up a position at the Medico Technological Research Institute of Minnesota and started his investigations with ultrasound waves on the thickness of the bowel wall in various surgical conditions, such as paralytic ileus and obstruction. Working with Donald Neal , an engineer, Wild published their work in 1950 on uni-directional A-mode ultrasound investigations into the thickness of where originate, surgical intestinal material and the impact media on society, later on the properties of gastric malignancies. They noted that malignant tissue was more echogenic than benign tissue and the former could be diagnosed from their density and failure to contract and relax. Wild's original vision of the application of ultrasound in medical diagnosis was more of a method of tissue diagnosis from the intensity and characteristics of different returning echos rather than as an imaging technique. Between 1950 and 51, he also collaborated with Lyle French at the department of Neurosugery in making diagnosis of savannah papers, brain tumors using ultrasound, although they had not found the method to be very helpful. Donald Neal was soon deployed to regular naval services at the naval air base after the Korean war.

John Reid , a newly graduating electrical engineer, was engaged through a grant from the National Cancer Institute as the sole engineer to the impact media build and operate Wild's ultrasonic apparatus. Savannah Papers. The device which they first used was an ultrasonic instrument which had been designed by the U.S. Navy for training pilots in the use of the radar, with which it was possible to practise 'flying' over a tank of the impact media on society, water covering a small scale map of enemy territory. We have a tissue radar machine scaled to inches instead of who wrote the play othello, miles by the use of ultrasound. Wild and Reid soon built a linear hand-held B-mode instrument, a formidable technical task In those days, and were able to visualise tumours by sweeping from side to side through breast lumps.

The instrument operated at a frequency of 15 megahertz. In 1952 they published the Landmark paper: Application of Echo-Ranging Techniques to the Determination of of social media, Structure of savannah papers, Biological Tissues . In another paper Reid wrote about the impact of social media on society their first scanning equipment: ' The first scanning machine was put together, mechanically largely by John with parts obtained through a variety of friends in Minneapolis. I was able to modify a standard test oscilloscope plug-in board. Did The. We were able to make our system work, make the first scanning records in the clinic, and mail a paper off to Science Magazine within the lapsed time of perhaps ten days. This contribution was accepted in early 1952 and became the first publication ( to my knowledge ) on intensity-modulated cross-section ultrasound imaging . It appeared even before Douglass Howry 's paper from his considerably more elaborate system at the end of the same year.'

In May 1953 they produced real-time images at 15 megahertz of cancerous growths of the media on society breast. They had also coined their method 'echography' and of manchester, 'echometry' , suggesting the quantitative nature of the the impact of social media investigation. By 1956 , Wild and Reid had examined 117 cases of of the, breast pathology with their linear real-time B-mode instrument and had started work on colon tumour diagnosis and detection. Of Social Media On Society. Analysis of the breast series showed promising results for pre-operative diagnosis. Malignant infiltration of tissues surrounding breast tumours could also be resolved. Wild and savannah papers, Reid had also invented and described the use of of social media, A-mode trans-vaginal and trans-rectal scanning transducers in celts originate 1955 . Despite these, Wild was not commended for his unconventional research methods at media, the time.

His results were considered difficult to interpret and lacked overall stability. Intellectual and financial support for Wild's research dwindled, and legal disputes and politics also hampered further governmental grants. His work was eventually supported only by private funds which ran scarce and his data apparently received much less recognition than they deserved. John Reid completed his MS thesis in 1957 on celts focusing radiators. The Impact Of Social Media. In addition he had importantly verified that dynamic focusing was practical. After leaving Wild's laboratory he pursued his doctoral degree at the University of Pennsylvania. Savannah Papers. From 1957-1965 he worked on the impact of social echocardiography, producing and critical studies, using the first such system in of social media the United States, with cardiologist Claude Joyner . Visit John Wild's own site on his discoveries and current activities. At the University of Colorado in Denver, Douglass Howry had also started pioneering ultrasonic investigations since 1948 . Howry, a radiologist working at the Veteran's Administration Hospital , had concentrated more of his work on the development of B-mode equipment, displaying body structures in savannah papers a 2-dimensional and sectional manner comparable to the actual gross sectioning of structures in the pathology laboratory.

Published works from the M I T Radar school staff served as initial reference material on techniques in data presentation. He was able to demonstrate an ultrasonic echo interface between structures or tissues, such as that between fat and muscle, so that the the impact media on society individual structures could be outlined. Supported by his nephrologist friend and colleague Joseph Homles , who was then the acting director of the hospital's Medical Research Laboratories, Howry produced in The Mutations Thalassemia Essay 1951 with William Roderic Bliss and Gerald J Posakony , both engineers, the 'Immersion tank ultrasound system' *, the first 2-dimensional B-mode (or PPI , plan position indication mode) linear compound scanner. Two dimensional cross-sectional images were published in 1952 and 1953 , which convincingly demonstrated that interpretable 2-D images of internal organ structures and pathologies could be obtained with ultrasound. The team produed the formal motorized ' Somascope' , a compound circumferential scanner, in 1954 . The transducer of the of social media somascope was mounted around the rim of a large metal immersion tank filled with water . The machine was able to make compound scans of an intra-abdominal organ from different angles to produce a more readable picture. The sonographic images were referred to as 'somagrams' . The discovery and apparatus were reported in the Medicine section of the Tea Essay LIFE Magazine ® in of social media 1954 . The 'Pan-scanner' *, where the transducer rotated in a semicircular arc around the patient, was developed in 1957 . The patient sat on a modified dental chair strapped against a plastic window of a semicircular pan filled with saline solution, while the Mutations Cause Thalassemia transducer rotated through the solution in a semicircular arc. Of Social. The achievement was commended by the American Medical Association in 1958 at its scientific meeting in San Francisco, and the team's exhibit was awarded a Certificate of Merit by the association. The work of Douglass Howry , Joseph Holmes and his team is The Mutations that Cause, necessarily the most important pioneering work in B-mode ultrasound imaging and contact scanning in the United States that had been the the impact direct precursor of the kind of savannah papers, ultrasound imaging we have today.

Pioneering designs in electronic circuitries were also made in conjunction with the development of the B-scan, these included the pulse-echo generator circuitry, the limiter and log amplification circuitry and on society, the demodulator and time gain compensation circuitries. The Howry/ Holmes systems, although capable of critical legal studies, producing 2-D, accurate, reproducible images of the body organs, required the patient to be totally or partially immersed in water, and remained motionless for a length of time. Migration to lighter and more mobile versions of these systems, particularly with smaller water-bag devices or transducers directly in contact and movable on the body surface of of social media, patients were imminently necessary. Read notes and the play othello, see more pictures from Gerald Posakony on the early Howry scanners here . Homles , together with consultant engineers William Wright and Ralph (Edward) Meyerdirk , and support from the U. Media On Society. S. Public Health Services and where did the originate, the University of Colorado, continued to fabricate a new prototype compound contact scanner , which had the the impact media on society transducer in did the celts direct contact with the patient's body and suspended on moving railings above the patient. Of Social On Society. The apparatus and the usuage of ultrasound scanning were reported in the May 22 issue of the TIME Magazine in 1964. After working on the project for about 2 years, the team finally came up with an innovative multi-joint articulated-arm compound contact scanner with wire mechanisms and The Power of the, electronic position transducing potentiometers. The transducer could be positioned by hand and moved over the scanning area in various directions by the operator. In 1962 , with blessing from Holmes, Wright and the impact of social media on society, Meyerdirk left the University to form the Physionics Engineering® Inc. at Longmont, Colorado, to produce and market their scanner. In 1963 , the first hand-held articulated arm compound contact B-mode scanner (pictured on the left) was commercially launched in the United States.

The launch was reported in The Power the Longmont Daily Times-Call in 1963. This was the start of the most popular design in the history of media on society, static ultrasound scanners, that of the articulated-arm scanning mechanism. Much of the later work in clinical ultrasound was followed up by Homles and his colleagues, Stewart Taylor , Horace Thompson and Kenneth Gottesfeld in Denver. Of Manchester Pharmacy. The group published some of the earliest papers in the impact media obstetrical and gynecological ultrasound from North America. Douglass Howry had moved to Boston in 1962 where he worked at the Massachussetts General Hospital until he passed away in 1969. Earliest Wright-Meyerdirk scanner console with one of the first images from who wrote othello, a. practical commercial articulated-arm scanner. The Impact Media. Portability was also emphasized. In Japan , at who wrote the play, about the same time as Wild and Howry's development, Kenji Tanaka and Toshio Wagai , surgeons at the Juntendo University, Tokyo, together with Shigeru Nakajima , director of the Japan Radio Company, Rokuro Uchida , physicist and chief engineer, had also started looking into the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial disease in collaboration with the Nihon Musen Radiation and Medical Electronics Laboratory which had later become the the impact media ALOKA ® Company in 1950 , headed by Uchida . Nakajima and Uchida built Japan's first ultrasonic scanner operating in the A-mode in 1949 , modified from a metal-flaw detector. Yoshimitsu Kikuchi , Professor at that Essay, the Research Institute of Electrical Communications at the impact media on society, the Tohoku University in Sendai also assisted in their research.

Together, the team started their formal ultrasound work in ultrasound imaging in 1952 . They published 5 papers on ultrasonic diagnosis in brain diseases in that year and many other papers in Cause Essay the ensuing few years. In 1954 , Tanaka published an important review entitled Application of ultrasound to diagnostic field, and investigations had started with other body organs. Of Social. By 1955 , experiments and fabrication with B-mode scanning had started using a similar scope modified from the original A-mode machine coupled with a linear moving transducer gantry . This was shortly developed into the water-bag scanners . Also read the Preface and introduction (history) to Tanaka's book Diagnosis of Brain Disease by Ultrasound published in 1969 for a short history of his pioneering work in The Power of the the 1950s. The M I T hosted a historical conference in Bioacoustics in 1956 and the impact media, those who attended included Wagai, Kikuchi, Dussik, Bolt, Ballantine, Hueter, Wild, Fry and Howry . Many of them met each other for the first time and important views concerning methods and instrumentations were exchanged at the meeting. Kikuchi was very active in equipment designs, and by 1957 he was able to demonstrate the one-point contact-sector scanning tomography using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format, which had a resemblance to legal a ' radar display '. This development, which was at media, around a similar time as the pioneering work of Howry in Denver and university pharmacy, Ian Donald in Glasgow (see below), had a similar concept of position-referenced contact scanning. Aloka® produced japan's first commercial medical A-scanner, the of social media SSD-2 and the water-bag B-scanner, the SSD-1 in 1960 (pictured on the right). The application of savannah papers, ultrasound in Obstetrical and Gynaecological diagnosis started around 1956 with the of social A-scan basing on who wrote a vaginal approach and later B-scans at around 1962 basing on the use of the one-point contact-sector scanner in the PPI format. Early commercial water-bag scanners were being produced by Aloka® and the impact on society, Toshiba® in the early 1960s. Masao Ide at the Musashi Institute of Technology in Toyko, working with Wagai and university pharmacy, others launched important pioneering research on the bioeffects of ultrasound. William Fry hosted another conference on ultrasonics in 1962 at the University of Illinois which served as a very important meeting point for researchers from the United States, Europe and Japan.

Michio Ishihara at the National Sanatorium Kiyose Hospital in Tokyo and Hajime Murooka at the impact, the department of the play, obstetrics and gynecology, Oomiya Red Cross Hospital, Saitama, delivered the on society first paper on ultrasound diagnosis of Tea Essay, gynecological masses in the Japanese language at the 19th Kanto District Meeting of the Japanese Obstetrical and Gynecological Society in 1958 , basing on the A-scan. Murooka had earlier in 1957 received instructions from Wagai on the A-scan methods at the Juntendo University. They described A-scan echoes in cancer of the cervix and also in the presence of different causes of uterine enlargement. The Impact Of Social Media On Society. Wagai published a review article in the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1959 . Savannah Papers. The Murooka's group apparently did not continue their work after the first two papers presented at scientific meetings. ohn Wild was back in England in 1954 to give a lecture on his new discovery and of social media on society, this was attended by Val Mayneord , Professor of medical physics at the Royal Cancer Hospital (now the Royal Marsden) who had also been experimenting with the Kelvin Hughes® MK llB metal flaw-detector in where did the celts originate neurological diagnosis. Among the audience was Ian Donald who was then Reader in media Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the St. Thomas Hospital Medical School in London and was about to take up the appointment of Regius Chair of Midwifery at Glasgow University. Donald was quick to realize what ultrasound had to offer. Originate. # Wild, while returning to Minnesota, had mainly concentrated his investigations on the diagnosis of tumors of the breast and colon using 15 MHz probes which had tissue penetrations of only up to 2 cm.

In 1956 , Wild published his landmark paper on the study of 117 breast nodules, reporting an accuracy of diagnosis of over 90 percent. Despite that, the ultrasonic method of tissue diagnosis which he so popularised did not reach the point of wide acceptance. Pioneering work in ultrasonic diagnosis in the impact of social on society the field of savannah papers, Obstetrics and Gynaecology however, soon took off in Glasgow , Scotland . The following is an excerpt from an article in the University of Glasgow publication 'Avenue' No. 19: January 1996 entitled ' Medical Ultrasound ---- A Glasgow Development which Swept the the impact of social media World ' , by Dr. James Willocks MD , who had best described the othello circumstances of of social on society, Donald 's early work : He was born in Cornwall in December 1910, the who wrote the play son and grandson of Scottish doctors. His school education began in Scotland and finished in South Africa.

He returned to England in 1931 and graduated in medicine at St Thomas's Hospital Medical School in 1937. In 1939 he joined the RAF where his service was distinguished. He was decorated for gallantry for entering a burning bomber with the bombs still in of social it, to savannah papers rescue injured airmen. Service in the RAF stimulated his interest in gadgetry of the impact of social on society, all kinds and he became familiar with radar and sonar, a technique which had been devised by the French physicist, Paul Langevin in the First World War as a possible method of submarine detection. On returning to London at the end of the War, he took up obstetrics and gynaecology and held appointments at various London hospitals.

His first research work was directed towards respiratory problems in the newborn, and he devised apparatus to help babies breathe when respiration did not get off to The Power Tea Essay a flying start. Because of of social media on society, his interest in machines, Ian was known as 'Mad Donald' by some of his London colleagues, who caricatured him as a crazy inventor, but his talent was spotted by that great university statesman, Sir Hector Hetherington, and he was appointed to the Regius Chair of Midwifery at the University of Glasgow in university of manchester 1954 . . His interest soon turned to the idea that sonar could be used for the impact of social on society, medical diagnosis and the idea was first put into practice on 21 July 1955 , when he visited the Research Department of the of the boilermakers Babcock Wilcox at Renfrew on the impact of social media on society the invitation of where did the celts, one of the directors, who was the husband of the impact of social media, a grateful patient. He took with him two cars, the boots of which were loaded up with a collection of lumps such as fibroids and ovarian cysts which had recently been removed from patients in his Department. He carried out some experiments with an industrial ultrasonic metal flaw detector on these tumours, and on a large lump of steak which the company had kindly provided as control material. (No one had the appetite for the steak afterwards!) Later he formed a link with the Kelvin Hughes Scientific Instrument Company , and that Essay, particularly with a young technician called Tom Brown . Quite by accident, Tom Brown had heard the strange tale of a professor who was attempting to use a metal flaw detector to the impact of social media on society detect flaws in women. He telephoned Professor Donald and suggested a meeting, and it was not long before Donald and Brown together with Dr John MacVicar , later Professor of Obstetrics Gynaecology in the University of Leicester, plunged into an intensive investigation into the value of ultrasound in differentiating between cysts, fibroids and pharmacy, any other intra abdominal tumours that came their way. Early results were disappointing and the enterprise was greeted with a mixture of scepticism and ridicule. The Impact Of Social On Society. However, a dramatic case where ultrasound saved a patient's life by diagnosing a huge, easily removable, ovarian cyst in a woman who had been diagnosed as having inoperable cancer of the stomach, made people take the technique seriously. 'From this point', Ian Donald wrote, 'there could be no turning back'. University Pharmacy. Results eventually appeared in print in The Lancet of 7 June 1958 under the arid title 'Investigation of Abdominal Masses by Pulsed Ultrasound' . The Impact Of Social. This was probably the most important paper on medical diagnostic ultrasound ever published. Ten years later all doubt had been cast away and the play othello, Ian Donald was able to review the early history of ultrasound in a characteristic , forthright manner. The Impact Media On Society. 'As soon as we got rid of the backroom attitude and brought our apparatus fully into the Department with an inexhaustible supply of living patients with fascinating clinical problems, we were able to get ahead really fast. Any new technique becomes more attractive if its clinical usefulness can be demonstrated without harm, indignity or discomfort to the patient . . Anyone who is satisfied with his diagnostic ability and with his surgical results is unlikely to contribute much to the launching of a new medical science.

He should first be consumed with a divine discontent with things as they are. It greatly helps, of course, to have the legal right idea at the right time, and quite good ideas may come, Archimedes fashion, in one's bath.' In 1959 Ian Donald noted that clear echoes could be obtained from the fetal head and began to apply this information. I became involved shortly afterwards, and indeed was given the project to play with on my own. At the Royal Maternity Hospital, Rottenrow, there was no separate room to examine the patients and not even a cupboard in which to keep the media on society apparatus, so my colleague, the physicist Tom Duggan , and I pushed it about on a trolley and approached patients in the wards for permission to examine them at the bedside. Glasgow women are wonderful and The Power of the, they accepted all this without demur . . We applied the method of fetal head measurement to assess the size and growth of the of social media on society foetus. When the university of manchester pharmacy Queen Mother's Hospital opened in 1964 it became possible to refine the technique greatly.

My colleague Dr. Stuart Campbell (now Professor at King's College Hospital, London) did this and fetal cephalometry became the standard method for the study of fetal growth for many years. Within the next few years it became possible to study pregnancy from beginning to end and the impact media, diagnosis of celts originate, complications like multiple pregnancy, fetal abnormality and placenta praevia (which causes life threatening haemorrhage) became possible. Professor Donald had gathered around him a team of talented young doctors and technologists, including the research engineers John Fleming and Angus Hall , who were engaged by the University when the the impact media Kelvin Hughes company was closed in 1966. John Fleming has continued at the Queen Mother's Hospital as the technical genius behind all developments, and is also in charge of the valuable historical collection about diagnostic ultrasound. Practically all apparatus is now Japanese in origin, but the contribution of Scottish engineering to the development of where originate, medical ultrasound should never be forgotten. ' Ian Donald was also aware of the work of Howry in the United States and Kikuchi in Japan in the early 1950s, and had referenced these pioneers alongside with the work of Wild and Reid in his Lancet paper in 1958 . Donald had felt that it was his fortune to have started with these historical A-mode and B-mode instruments instead of the of social on society apparatus that Wild and Howry had used, as these involved high frequency transducers (and hence associated with poor penetration into tissues) or a water-bath arrangement which could both become deterrants to further development in a medical setting ## . Aside from did the celts originate, this, Donald had on the impact media many occasions remarked that a lot of his developments in ultrasound was from a stroke of accident, coincidence and luck.

The ' full bladder ' was one, which he only discovered in 1963. Savannah Papers. That the fetal head, being a symmetrical skull bone could be easily demonstrable and the impact of social media, measured accurately by a beam of ultrasound in an A-scan was another, as was the opportunity of meeting up with a number of university of manchester pharmacy, important administrators on the way and working with the very bright engineer Tom Brown from Kelvin Hughes®. Brown , at the age of 24, invented and constructed with Ian Donald the prototype of the world's first Compound B-mode (plan-position indication, PPI) contact scanner in 1957 . The transducer operated at 2.5 MHz. The prototype was progressively improved to become the Diasonograph ® manufactured commercially by Smith Industrials of England which had taken control of the Kevin and Hughes Scientific Instrument Company in 1961. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of the prototypes, read an important unpublished paper by Tom Brown entitled Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . One of Brown 's first generation models was sold to Bertil Sunden at Lund , Sweden (see below). The console design of the Diasonograph ® came from Dugald Cameron who was then an industrial design student at the Glasgow school of Art. Brown also invented and patented an the impact elaborate and expensive automated compound contact scanner in 1958 and it was at the machine's exhibition in London in 1960 that Ian Donald met for the first time Douglass Howry from the United States who had been using the much larger size water-tank circumferential scanner for the play, several years (see above).

Donald nevertheless had quoted in his 1958 paper in the Lancet Howry 's work in B-mode scanning. The meeting had also influenced Howry and his team into producing a similar compound contact scanner like the Donald's although this had rapidly evolved into the multi-joint articulated arm version. A brief description of the working of the prototype compound contact scanner (which eventually developed into the Diasonograph ®) was given by Donald and Brown in 1958 , the same concept and design were extended into the later commercial models: . A probe containing both transmitting, and receiving transducers is mounted on a measuring jig, which is placed above the patient's bed. The Impact Of Social Media On Society. The probe is free to move vertically and horizontally and, as it does so, operates two linear potentiometers, which give voltage outputs proportional to its horizontal and vertical displacements from some reference point. The probe is also free to of the Tea Essay rotate in of social on society the plane of its horizontal and vertical freedom, and savannah papers, transmits its rotation via a linkage to a sine-cosine potentiometer. The voltage outputs from this system of potentiometers control an electrostatic cathode-ray tube, so that the direction of the linear time-base sweep corresponds to the inclination of the probe, and the point of origin of the sweep represents the instantaneous position of the probe. The apparatus is so calibrated that the same reflecting point will repeat itself in exactly the same position on the cathode-ray tube screen from whatsoever angle it is scanned, and likewise a planar interface comes to of social media on society be represented as a consistent line. The echoes picked up by the probe are displayed on three oscilloscope screens: an A-scope display, a combined B-scope and PPI display on a long-persistence screen for monitoring: and a similar screen and display of short persistence with a camera mounted in front of it. The probe is moved slowly from Mutations that Cause Thalassemia Essay, one flank, across the abdomen to the other flank being rocked to media on society and fro on its spindle the whole time to scan the deeper tissues from as many angles as possible. . The automated scanner which Brown originally designed to overcome the effects of motion variables did not catch on well, while the Diasonograph ® was sold to The Power many other parts of Britain and Europe including Sweden, London and Bristol, the place where another ultrasound pioneer, Peter NT Wells , a medical physicist, had been developing a different version of the multi-joint articulated arm scanner (basing on of social the Diasonograph electronics ), independently from his American counterpart. In 1966 , Smiths pulled out of Scotland because the factory was apparently not making money.

At the critical legal studies same time the US Supreme Court ruled against Smiths in favour of Automation Industries (formerly the of social media on society Sperry Company ) of Denver on the question of the so-called Firestone patents (Floyd Firestone's patent on flaw-detection devices in 1942, see above). As part of the settlement, Smiths undertook to withdraw both from the industrial and medical applications of The that, ultrasound, and Automation acquired title to the collection of Smiths' patents on the impact on society these subjects. This included the Brown patents on 2-D contact scanning. Smiths sold the who wrote othello medical business to Nuclear Enterprises (G.B.) Ltd . in Edinburgh, which took over the manufacturing of the Diasonograph ® (see Tom Brown's Recollections ). Ian Donald had to set up his own Department of Ultrasonic Technology at the Queen Mother's Hospital. He had John Fleming and the impact of social media on society, Angus Hall back to studies help him. They worked as development engineers on all the ultrasound projects and Fleming worked until his retirement in 1995. He is co-ordinator of the media on society BMUS historical collection and oversees the ultrasonic equipments at the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. By 1968, Brian Fraser and Alan Cole at Nuclear Enterprises revamped the mechanical and critical studies, valve design and the impact, redeveloped a new electronic system using semiconductor technology.

The resulting NE 4102 became a very popular instrument, and was used in most British hospitals and The that Cause Thalassemia Essay, many European ones. For a detailed account of the media pioneering development of medical ultrasonics in Glasgow, Scotland, read the biography of Tom Brown and an important unpublished paper by Brown on the Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . Joseph Holmes and Ian Donald had subsequently become good friends across the Atlantic and of manchester pharmacy, Ian Donald and John Fleming were invited to speak on the impact media their experiences at the International Conference at Pittsburg hosted by Homles and others in 1965 . Where Did The Originate. This was among the many American tours which Ian Donald did starting from 1961. He spoke about Homles in a speech he gave in 1967 to the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB) , ' I think Joe Holmes has done more than anyone to pull us all together from our several pathways '. Holmes became the founding editor of the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound in 1973 . Over in the impact continental Europe , Bertil Sunden in Lund, Sweden , had started investigations in 1958 with Alf Sjovall , his professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology, on early pregnancies using an The Mutations that Cause Thalassemia A-mode echoscope (a Krautkramer® reflectoscope USIP 9). The study on the application of ultrasound in Lund had already started formally in 1953 in cardiology and neurology (see above). Sunden visited Ian Donald for 3 weeks in 1960 on a sabbatical to study B-mode scanning. His work at Donald's department had resulted in the shipment of the first generation Diasonograph® to Lund, with which he produced his doctoral thesis on the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, and reported his experience on 400 cases of pelvic pathologies. He also studied the of social possible harmful effects of ultrasound on pregnant rats, and did not find any. Sunden's thesis published in the Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand in 1964 represented the earliest and of manchester pharmacy, the most comprehensive publication in Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasonography at that time. At around the the impact on society same time, N D Selezneva , a disciple of the famous Soviet scientist, S Y Sokolov , published his work in ultrasonography in Gynecology in the former USSR in the early 1960s. R A Khentov , R A Khestova and I A Skorunskii from the Central Institute of Advanced Training in Medicine, Moscow followed on othello with a large number of Russian publications in Obstetrics and Gynecology from 1965 onwards, using A-mode and later on B-mode equipments made at the USSR Scientific Research Institute of Medical instruments and Equipment. Almost ninety-nine percent of the impact of social media on society, these publications were nevertheless in the Russian language.

The Ultrasonic Boom. The increase in the research and application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology appeared to boom from 1966 onwards (see chart below) when there was an upsurge of centers and Mutations that Thalassemia, people in Europe, the United States and the impact on society, Japan that had begun to embark on where did the celts studies in the application of on society, ultrasound diagnosis in this specialty. A- and B- mode equipment were both in university pharmacy use including the first 'fast B-scanner', the the impact of social on society Vidoson ® from Siemens ® (see part 2 ) used by savannah papers D Hofmann and Hans Holländer at the Wilhelm University in Münster, Germany . Alfred Kratochwil at media on society, the Second University Frauenklinik, Vienna, Austria started working on placental localisation with the savannah papers A-mode scanner he acquired from Paul Kretz , founder of KretzTechnik AG in the impact of social media Zipf, Austria. He soon learned of othello, Ian Donald 's work with the the impact of social B-scan and quickly collaborated the company to develop a similar device. The model 4100 originally designed for ophthalmologic use was adapted to of manchester pharmacy carry an articulated-arm gantry (pictured below) for on society, the abdominal B-scan mode. The articulated-arm design he found, was easier to manipulate than the Glasgow counterpart. He initially tried to used it on localizing pelvic recurrences in patients who had radical surgery for carcinoma of the cervix, and also on a variety of obstetric conditions. As early as 1972, Kratochwil had, among other endeavours, successfully demonstrated the savannah papers visualisation of ovarian follicles with static B-mode ultrasound. Kratochwil soon became one of the most prolific users of the instrument and worked on areas such as the breasts and other surgical conditions, where he also published a number of important early papers. Since 1968 he developed training courses in ultrasound in Vienna and of social on society, his department was visited by many hundreds of radiologists and obstetricians to learn about the applications of ultrasonography.

Kratochwil was probably the most productive of where celts originate, all the investigators in Europe and was instrumental to the impact media the constantly improving designs at KretzTechnik AG . Hans Henrik Holm , a urologist, started the ultrasound laboratory at the Gentofte Hospital in Copenhagen , Denmark in 1964 , and with Jorgen Kristensen , Allen Northeved , Jan Pedersen , Jens Bang among others had established a strong research team. Holm also designed their version of an articulated-arm scanner which subsequently was taken up for commercial production at Smith Kline Instrument ® in the United States. The Copenhagen center had in time become a leading center in Interventional ultrasound , even up to this day. And so it was that the early pioneers in diagnostic ultrasound from the The Mutations that Cause Essay United States , Japan , United Kingdom , Austria , Germany , Sweden , Switzerland , Denmark , France , Poland , Holland , USSR and China have all started with the A-scan basing on the metal flaw detector or a modification of the the impact of social media on society instrument. Many had first started their investigations in neurology , cardiology and ophthalmology , and only later on The Power did they apply ultrasonic techniques to the abdomen and pelvis. In Germany , at around 1950 both Siemens ® and Krautkrmer ® had started to make flaw-detecting equipment. Located close to the steel industry Krautkrmer ® provided better service than Siemens ® and soon dominated the market. After W Güttner and others had shown the impracticality of the transmission technique in 1952, Siemens had lost interest in diagnostic ultrasound. Around the end of 1956 the company decided to stop producing flaw-detection equipment completely. It was Inge Edler and Carl Hertz in Lund who adapted three of the Siemens® flaw detectors for cardiac investigations in 1957 (see above), and these were introduced back into hospitals in the impact of social media on society Germany. After a lapse of almost 10 years, the company developed the first fast B-scanner, the Vidoson in 1967, suitable for gynecological and abdominal examination (see Part 2 ). Germany was nevertheless one of the more 'prolific' of the European countries in savannah papers terms of centers in early ultrasonic applications and research, with publications coming from the impact on society, Muchen, Erlangen, Bonn, Heidelberg, Berlin, Frankfurt, Freiburg and Bochum.

Vienna in Austria, as noted above was 'historically' important because of the company Kretztechnik AG which produced some of the best and most advanced machines in the world at savannah papers, that time. The Impact On Society. The B-scan , basing on critical legal more sophisticated instrumentation emanating from radar sciences quickly evolved and replaced the A-scans. Centers worldwide started to develop their own machines (see above) while others would import them commercially, largely because of a perceived better quality than their home-made counterparts. For example, in the late 1960s some Finnish centers used Physionics / Picker ® machines from the United States and of social on society, French and Italian centers used scanners from Nuclear Enterprise ® and originate, KretzTechnik AG . Smith Kline Instruments ® scanners were used in Spain, Aloka ® models in Brussels and the Siemens ® Vidoson was employed by a number of centers outside of Germany. The First World Congress on Ultrasonic Diagnostics in Medicine was held in Vienna in 1969 and of social on society, the second in Rotterdam in 1972 where an increasing number of papers in this specialty was presented. These meetings identified and brought together an international group of clinicians and scientists who started to contribute heavily towards the The Mutations that Thalassemia developments of ultrasonic instrumentation and methodology. Media. In Europe , Alfred Kratochwil (1966), ( Austria ), D Hofmann (1966), Hans Hollander (1966), Manfred Hansmann (1966), ( Germany ), Malte Hinselmann (1968) ( Switzerland ), Salvator Levi (1967) ( Brussels ), Hans Henrik Holm (1967), Jens Bang (1967) ( Denmark ), Georges Boog (1969), Francis Weill (1969) ( France ), I Roszkowski I (1968), Jerzy Groniowski (1968), ( Poland ), Paavo Pystynen (1966), Pekka Ylöstalo (1971), Pentti Jarvinen (1968), Pentti Jouppila (1970) ( Finland ), J Hernandez (1970), R Montero (1970), Fernando Bonilla-Musoles (1971) ( Spain ), Bruno Damascelli (1967), L Roncoroni (1967), Alberto Zacutti (1968), C Brugnoli (1968), Achille Ianniruberto (1970) ( Italy ), E Kalamara (1972), M Bulic (1972), Asim Kurjak (1973) ( Yugoslavia, now Croatia ), Juriy Wladimiroff (1974) ( Netherlands ), M Falus (1969), M Sobel (1969), L Kun (1973), P Bosze (1973) ( Hungary ), among many others, soon followed up with their many publications in of the Tea Essay obstetrical and gynecological sonography, although much of what was published was not in the impact media the English language. [The year in parenthesis denoted the year in which publications in Obstetrics and Gynecology from the particular author first appeared in the literature]. The delegates of 13 European ultrasound societies met in Basel, Switzerland in 1972 to form the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) . In the of the Tea Essay United Kingdom , Ellis Barnett , Patricia Morley , Hugh Robinson , Usama Abdulla in Glasgow, Peter Wells in Bristol, A C Christie in Aberdeen, E I Kohorn , Stuart Campbell in the impact of social media London (see Part 2 ), Hyton Meire and The that Thalassemia, Pat Farrant in Middlesex, and Christopher Hill at the Royal Marsden continued to make very important contributions in many areas. Barnett and Morley's book in 1974 : Clinical Diagnostic Ultrasound was the first book (including publications from the United States) devoted to abdominal B-mode ultrasonography. Peter Wells in the impact particular, was the university of manchester single most important contributor to the advancement of ultrasound technology in Britain.

Stuart Campbell eventually became one of the world's most well-known researcher and teacher in the field of the impact of social media, Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasound. The British Medical Ultrasound group was formed in 1969 by members of the Hospital Physicists Association and the British Institute of Radiology. The group later changed its name and savannah papers, became officially the the impact of social media British Medical Ultrasound Society (BMUS) in 1977 . Back in the United States , J Stauffer Lehman , in Hahnemann, Philadelphia was instrumental in the early 1960's to the continuing development of did the, ultrasound technology in of social media on society the United States . The Thalassemia. His association with Smith Kline Instruments ® had been catalytic to media the company's production of water-bag and contact B-mode scanners on critical studies top of their existing line of A- and M- mode equipments for echocardiography. The LIFE® magazine made an introduction to Ultrasound scanning at Lehman's laboratory in the impact on society their January and Mutations Essay, September issues in 1965 . The Family Circle® magazine also reported on the medical use of ultrasound in the impact media on society their October 1966 issue. Lehman's equipment was nevertheless cumbersome and expensive to fabricate and later on a smaller company, Hoffrel took up the production of his machine. The Thalassemia. After the expiration of SKI's contract, Lehmann turned to of social media use the articulated arm scanner originally invented and produced by the Physionics Inc in Longmont, Colorado (later on acquired by the Picker Corporation and further expanding its development).

Barry Goldberg joined Lehman in 1968 and expanded the research. He published extensively on a variety of subjects including echocardiography and interventional ultrasonography and was on record the first to describe fetal cephalometry in 1965 outside of Britain and Europe. George Evans , then a young Radiologist, was responsible for organizing the service and several important research projects. With his team was Marvin Ziskin . Together they have introduced ultrasound to where did the celts originate the Radiological community in the United States and convincing them of the the impact of social media on society technique's clinical value. The Play. Lajos von Micsky , working at the impact, the St. Luke's Medical Center in New York, was also one of the important pioneers of university of manchester pharmacy, abdominal as well as endoscopic sonographic equipment . He established a bioacoustical laboratory at the center in 1963 and devised many innovative abdominal, trans-vesical, rectal and the impact of social media on society, trans-vaginal scanners. Articulated arm scanners such as the PortaScan from Physionics Inc ® produced in the mid-1960s had become the most popular format in compound contact B-scanners in the United States and throughout the world. Other earliest manufacturers of similar devices included the UniRad Corporation ®. Newer machines soon followed from the play, manufacturers in the United States and worldwide.

These included the Picker ® Laminograph 102, the KretzTechnik AG Combison 1 and 2, the Nuclear Enterprise ® Diasonograph 4102 (pictured above), the Aloka ® SSD-10 compound contact scanner (pictured below) and the Toshiba ® TSL systems. Jan C Somer and Nicolaas Bom in media on society the Netherlands introduced the phased-array and linear-array transducers respectively in 1968 and 1971 (see Part 2 ). Louis M Hellman , Mitsunao Kobayashi , Ross Brown , George Leopold , Roy Filly , Roger Sanders , Arthur Fleischer , Kenneth Taylor , Fred Winsberg , John Hobbins and William Cochrane were among those who produced a substantial amount of work from the early 1970s on the application of ultrasound relating to Obstetrics and Gynecology and had contributed much to moving the university of manchester modality forward. Winsberg had a particular interest in real-time scanners and he was the first to media on society use the German Vidoson ® real-time scanner (see part 2) in North America (at the McGill University in Montreal, Canada) in 1970 . Mutations Thalassemia. One of the very earliest textbooks in sonography in the English language aside from Bertil Sunden 's thesis was from Kobayashi , Hellmen and of social on society, Cromb : Atlas of of the, Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynaecology published in 1972 . The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) which was founded in 1952 by a group of of social media, physicians engaged primarily in the use of ultrasound in physical medicine only started to accept members in the diagnostic arena in 1964 . Diagnostic ultrasound has since then become the of manchester mainstream application in the organization. The First International Conference on Diagnostic Ultrasound was held in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 and was well attended by most of the the impact of social media on society ultrasound pioneers.

The Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine , the official journal of the AIUM , was inaugurated in 1982 replacing the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound as the association's main vehicle of communication with it's members. George Leopold was its founding editor. By the of the mid-1970s important producers of articulated compound B-scanners in the United States included the Picker Corp ®, Smith Kline Instruments ®, the UniRad Corporation ®, Searle Ultrasound ®, Rohe Scientific ®, Litton Medical Systems ® and Metrix Inc ®. A list of manufacturers of static compound contact scanners as at 1975 can be found here . The number of publications in the world literature each year on the impact on society the application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology rose from 1(Ian Donald's paper) in 1958 to 296 in 1978 . In the first 10 years, most publications were of a general descriptive nature and had similar titles to the effect of The use of ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. ref. In Japan, Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi , Koh Nakano and Masao Arima followed up the of manchester ultrasound work at the Juntendo University in of social media on society Tokyo, and experimented with new versions of the university of manchester A-mode transvaginal scanner . The first ultrasound scan of a 6-week gestational sac by vaginal A-scan was reported in the Japanese language in 1963. From 1962, the group worked extensively with the water-bag B-scanner, the Aloka SSD-1 and was very active in many areas and producing a huge number of research publications, ranging from early pregnancy diagnosis to cephalometry to placentography. They also reported on a large series of pelvic tumors in 1965, and in the following 2 years switched from the water-bag contact scanner to the articulated-arm compound contact scanner, the media on society SSD-10 . Another group consisting of T Tanaka , I Suda and The Mutations Cause Thalassemia Essay, S Miyahara started researches into the different stages of pregnancy in 1964. Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi and their team also demonstrated in 1965 an endovaginal scanner for pelvic examination using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format.

The device was mannually rotated and the resulting display was very similar to a circular military 'radar display. The Impact Of Social Media. Used either transrectally or transvaginally, It was capable of of manchester pharmacy, producing some meaningful pictures of the pelvic organs. On Society. See Hisaya Takeuchi for a list of early work from the group. The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine was officially formed in 1962 . In the 1970s important work started at the Tottori Uinversity , Toyko under Kazuo Maeda , particularly on doppler fetal cardiotocography and at the University of Toyko under Shoichi Sakamoto . Toshiba® produced their first A-mode scanner , the SSA-01A and the compound contact B-scanner , the The Mutations Essay TSL system in 1967 . Hitachi ® produced their first A-mode (the EUA-1 ) and B-mode scanner ( EUB-1 ) in 1971 and 72 respectively. In the on society Republic of China , Shih An founded in 1958 the Shanghai Ultrasonic Medical Research group at the Sixth People's Hospital of The Power Tea Essay, Shanghai and his team included Tao-Hsin Wang and Shih-Yuan An. In the same year they started ultrasonic investigations using a modified metal flaw detector (the Chiang Nan Type I ) manufactured at the chiang Nan Ship Building Plant.

The group collaborated with investigators from the the impact of social on society Shanghai First and Second Medical Colleges, namely Shih-Liang Chu, Hsiang-Huei Wu, Chih-Chang Hsu (Zhi-Zhang Xu) and Kuo-Juei Yu. They published in 1960 their preliminary report on the application of diagnostic ultrasound in various clinical conditions. This article which was published in Chinese in savannah papers the ' Chinese Medical Journal ' was not known to the west until two years later when their follow-up publication The use of pulsed ultrasound in clinical diagnosis appeared in the foreign language edition of the same journal. In these articles the diagnosis of of social media on society, hydatidiform mole with A-mode ultrasound was described, supposedly the first time in studies world literature, where they demonstrated a significant increase in the number of of social media on society, small echo spikes between the proximal and distal uterine walls. Further work in Obstetrics and Gynecology came from Xin-Fang Wang and Ji-Peng Xiao at the Wuhan Medical College (now Tongji Medical University) in Wuhan, China . In 1963 , the group reported on the sonographic findings in 261 abnormal pregnancies and in 1964 described fetal M-mode echocardiography which was probably the earliest of university pharmacy, such reports in the medical literature. No correlation between M-mode waveforms and specific cardiac structures was however made. Yong-Chang Chou who had also been pioneering A-mode ultrasound diagnosis since the late 1950s at the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital published a similar report in the next issue of the same journal (May, 1964). China was at that time closed to the outside world and equipments were only manufactured locally. Apart from the A-mode scanners, B-mode equipments were produced from a radar factory in Wuhan . One of the more important designs came from Zhi-Zhang Xu of the Shanghai Research group working at the ZhongShan Hospital. Regrettably progress was completely brought to the impact of social media on society a halt by the Cultural Revolution in 1966 and did not resume until the late 1970's.

In Taiwan , Republic of China, ultrasonic investigations started at the National Taiwan University in did the celts originate 1966, where J P Hung and Y C Chen used the Aloka® SSD-2C in media on society the detection of mid-line shifts in The Power of the Tea Essay head injuries and brain tumors. In the following year, their department and Obsteticians Hsi-Yao Chen and S M Wu had switched to the use of the B-mode SSD-10 from Aloka ® and of social, published papers on B-mode cephalometry in 1971 in the chinese language. The Society of Ultrasound in Medicine, Republic of China (SUMROC) was founded in 1984 . Down under in of manchester Australia , the Ultrasonic Research Section at the National (formerly Commonwealth ) Acoustic Laboratory in Sydney was established in 1959 , with the objective of creating a center of technical expertise in the field of medical ultrasound. The section was headed by it's chief physicist George Kossoff . The CAL was established back in 1948 by the Australian Government to undertake research relating to hearing deficits. Of Social On Society. An ultrasonics committee was set up in 1955 under the chairmanship of Norman Murray . Murray visited Joseph Holmes' laboratory in 1958 and critical legal, was impressed with the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool. The Ultrasound Research Section was soon established in the following year. Working in conjunction with William Garrett , a gynecologist from the Royal Hospital for Women in Sydney, who was eager to have a new diagnostic method for placental localization, Kossoff introduced the water-coupling CAL echoscope in 1959 and perfected it in 1962 , which was also modified for on society, breast scanning.

His team also included David Robinson , who joined the Institute in 1961. They published their first obstetric scans at the Ultrasonics symposium in Illinois in the following year. In 1968, Garrett , Robinson and Kossoff published one of the earliest papers in fetal anatomy Fetal anatomy displayed by ultrasound using the water-bath CAL echoscope that had brought out the university of manchester pharmacy role ultrasound would play in the impact the diagnosis of fetal malformations . In 1970 they published one of the ealiest papers on the diagnosis of fetal malformation, reporting a case of othello, fetal polycystic kidneys at 31 weeks of gestation. The original echoscope was replaced with a Mark II version in 1969 , which had already incoporated basic gray scaling in the images, before the invention of the of social 'scan-converter'. The group reported gray-scale obstetric scans in 1971 at the International Biological Engineering meeting in Melbourne and Mutations Cause, then at the World Congress of Ultrasonic Diagnosis in Medicine in Rotterdam in 1973 . David Carpenter joined the Section in of social media 1968, and headed the Engineering Research subsection. Stanley Barnett , a physiologist who subsequently published extensively on ultrasound bioeffects joined the Section in legal 1970. Kossoff and his team developed sophisticated annular dynamic phased-arrays in 1974 which was installed in of social media on society the mark II water-coupling echoscope. In 1975 , they constructed the who wrote the play othello UI Octoson , a rapid multi-transducer water-bath scanner which had then incoporated the the impact media on society new scan-converter , improved annular array transducers and more powerful computing electronics that had allowed for superior compound scans to be completed in less than 1 second. The scanning mechanism of the Octoson is completely immersed in the coupling tank and The Power, the patient, lying prone, is examined from below. (see also Part 2 ) Interestingly about the impact media terminologies in the early days: At the First International Conference on Diagnostic Ultrasound in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 , Charles Grossman , editor of the proceedings made the savannah papers following comments: . The terminology of diagnostic ultrasonics, like that of any new science, is still in the formative stage . The first term to describe the diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of the impact media, ultrasound appears to be ultrasonoscopie and was suggested by Denier in 1946.

Dussik in university of manchester pharmacy 1947 used hyperphonography for the transmission technic and Ballantine, Bolt, Hueter and Ludwig in 1950 ultrasonic ventriculography . Wild and Reid in 1952 tried to simplify the terminology and changed the term ultrasonoscope to echoscope , in their words 'to correspond with the word stethoscope.' They further suggested the terms ' echograph ' for the equipment and ' echograms ' for the records as well as unidimensional echography for A-scope and two- dimensional echography for B-scan presentations. In the same year (1952) Howry and the impact media, Bliss referred to their instrument as the ' somascope ' and to the B-Scan recordings as ' somagrams '. Leksell introduced the term ' echoencephalogram ' in 1955 for ultrasonic brain recordings. In my own publications the medical procedure of ultrasonic diagnostic examination of the brain is termed ' sonoencephalography ', whereas the graph is called ' sonoencephalogram '. . In Japan, they call it 'ultrasono-tomogram' and in Australia ' echograms ' . . Most have quickly settled with calling this diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound ' ultrasonography ' and the images recorded ' ultrasonograms '. In North America, the terms ' sonography ' and ' sonogram ' soon became more fashionable, and technical staff performing the celts procedure became known as ' sonographers '. In 1974, 'sonography' was recognised as a separate profession in the United States by the American Medical Association. The Impact. On the other hand, Ultrasonography is now used as the sole MeSH keyword in university of manchester Medline indexes to media on society delineate the subject. Some of the early references: Curie. J.P., Curie. (1880) Développement par pression de l'é'lectricite polaire dans les cristaux hémièdres à faces inclinées. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 91:294. Chilowsky C.M.

Langévin. M.P. (1916) Procídés et appareil pour production de signaux sous-marins dirigés et pour la localsation à distances d'obstacles sons-marins. French patent no. 502913. Langévin, M.P. (1928) Lés ondes ultrasonores. Rev Gen Elect 23:626. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope for interior inspection.

Met. Progr, 48:505-512. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope, an instrument of inspecting the interior of solid parts by means of sound waves. J. Savannah Papers. Acoust. Soc. Am. 17:287-299. Desch, C.H., Sproule, D.O. and the impact of social on society, Dawson, W.J. (1946) The detection of cracks in steel by means of supersonic waves. J. Iron and legal, Steel Inst. (1964):319.

Tanaka, K., Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Yasuura, M. Kikuchi, Y and Uchida, R. Detection of intracranial anatomical abnormalities by ultrasound. Tokyo Med. J. 69:525. (1950). Tanaka, K. (1952) Application of ultrasound to diagnostic field. Electr. Ind. 3. Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Fukushima, Y., Uchida, R. and Hagiwara, I. (1952) Detection of intracranial disease by pulsed ultrasound.

Tokyo Med. The Impact On Society. J. 72:37. Dussik, K.T. (1942) Uber die moglichkeit hochfrequente mechanische schwingungen als diagnostisches hilfsmittel zu verwerten. Z Neurol Psychiat 174:153. Dussik, K.T. (1942) On the did the celts possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid. Neurol. Psychiat. 174:153-168. Dussik, K.T., Dussik, F. and Wyt, L. (1947) Auf dem Wege Zur Hyperphonographie des Gehirnes. Wien.

Med. Wochenschr. 97:425-429. Dussik, K.T. (1948) Ultraschall Diagnostik, in besondere bei Gehirnerkrankungen, mittels Hyperphongraphie Z. Phys. Med. On Society. 1:140-145. Dussik, K.T. (1949) Zum heutigen stand der medizinischen ultraschallforschung. Mutations Thalassemia. Wien. Klin.

Wochenschr. 61:246-248. Ludwig, G.D., Bolt, R.H., Hueter, T.F. and Ballantine, H.T. (1950) Factors influencing the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic aid. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc. 225-228.

Ludwig, G.D. and Ballantine, H.T. (1950) Ultrasonic irradiation of the impact on society, nervous tissue. Surgical Forum, Clinical Congress of the American College of Surgeons P. 400. Ludwig, G.D. (1950) The velocity of savannah papers, sound through tissues and the acoustic impedance of tissues. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 22:862-866. Ludwig, G.D. and Struthers, F.W. Detecting gallstones with ultrasonic echoes. Electronics 23:172-178. (1950). Wild, J.J., French, L.A. and Neal, D. Detection of cerebral tumours by ultrasonic pulses.

Cancer 4:705. (1950). Wild, J.J. The use of ultrasonic pulses for the measurement of biological tissues and of social media, the detection of othello, tissue density changes. The Impact Of Social Media. Surgery 27:183-188. (1950). Wild, J.J., Neal, D. (1951) Use of savannah papers, high frequency ultrasonic waves for detecting changes in texture in living tissue. Lancet 1:655. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. Of Social. (1952) Application of echo-ranging techniques to The Thalassemia the determination of structure of biological tissues.

Science 115:226-230. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. The Impact. (1957) Current developments in ultrasonic equipments of medical diagnosis. IRE Trans. Ultrason. Originate. Engng. The Impact On Society. 5:44-56.

Howry, D.H. (1952) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures and disease processes. The Power Of The Tea Essay. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 40:812-813. Howry, D.H. and Bliss, W.R. (1952) Ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures of the body.

J. Lab. Clin. Med. 40:579-592. Howry, D.H. (1958) Development of an the impact media on society ultrasonic diagnostic instrument. Pharmacy. Am. J. Phys. Med. 37:234. Holmes, J.H., Howry, D.H., Posakony, G.J. and Cushman, C.R. (1954) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures in the human body. Trans.

Am. Of Social Media On Society. Clin. Climatol. Savannah Papers. Assoc. 66:208-223. Donald, I., MacVicar, J. and Brown, T.G. (1958) Investigation of abdominal masses by pulsed ultrasound. Lancet 1:1188-1195.

Donald, I. (1961) Ultrasonic radiations: Diagnostic applications. Tools of Biological Research 3rd Series. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. pp. 148-155. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Diagnostic applications of ultrasound. Proc. 3rd. Int. Conf. Med.

Electron. London. P. The Impact Of Social. 458. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Demonstration of tissue interfaces within the body by ultrasonic echo sounding. Br. J. Radiol. Mutations Cause Thalassemia Essay. 34:539-546. Donald, I. (1962) Clinical applications of ultrasonic techniques in obstetrical and of social media, gynaecological diagnosis. Br.

J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 69:1036. Donald, I. (1962) SONAR: A new diagnostic scho-sounding technique in obstetrics and gynaecology. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 55:637-638. Donald, I. (1974) SONAR. The Story of an experiment.Ultrasound Med Biol 1:109-117.

Images of George Ludwig and his early ultrasound equipment courtesy of the Ludwig Family. Reproduced with permission. Image of the Denver somascope reproduced with permission from Mr. GJ Posakony. Images of the Denver pan-scanner and Dr. Toshio Wagai were reproduced with permission from Dr. Barry Goldberg, Chairman of the Archives Committee of the AIUM.

Pictures of this, as well as other early scanners can be found in the Eastman Kodak Health Sciences publication, Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound: A retrospective on its 40th anniversary by savannah papers Drs. Goldberg and Kimmelman published in 1988. Image of Dr. John Wild courtesy of Dr. Wild. ^ Dr. William O'Brien Jr., Professor, Bioaccoustic Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of the impact of social media, Illinois. Images of the NE 4102 reproduced with permission from Dr. RG Law, from university of manchester pharmacy, his book 'Ultrasound in Clinical Obstetrics', John Wright and Sons Ltd, Bristol, 1980. # Press release, Third meeting of the Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Brighton, England, July 1982. ## from Sonar -- the Story of an Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in the impact media Ultrasound in savannah papers Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.

Pictures of of social media, Professors Bertil Sunden and Salvator Levi courtesy of Professor Levi. ^^ Courtesy of the Department of Ultrasonics, Polish Academy of Science. ref raw data from Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. #165 The story of the early development of sonar in Glasgow was vividly narrated in the article Sonar -- the Story of an Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in savannah papers Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.

Personal communications from Professor Xin-Fang Wang and Dr. The Impact Of Social Media. Jing Deng, University College, London. Other important references for this Internet article included: The constitution of diagnostic ultrasound in Insight and industry, On the legal studies dynamics of technological change in medicine, by S Blume. Cambridge, Massachusetts The MIT Press, 1992: 74-118.

In the image of science. The Impact On Society. Negotiating the development of critical legal, diagnostic ultrasound in the cultures of surgery and radiology in Technology and culture by Koch E. Society for the History of Technology, 1993; 34:858-893. Seeing with sound: A study of the media development of medical images by Edward Yoxen, in The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology, Bijker W., Hughes T., Pinch T., (ed). The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1987: 281-303. Ultrasound in Medicine - A review. The Power Of The. Kenneth Erikson, Francis Fry and Joie Jones, IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, vol. The Impact Media On Society. SU-21 no.

3, July 1974. Historical Review - The history of Echocardiography by Inge Edler and Kjell Lindstrom, Ultrasound in Mutations Cause Thalassemia Med. Biol., Vol. 30, No. 12, pp. 1565 - 1644, 2004. Diagnostic Ultrasound: Historical Perspective by Dr. Joseph Holmes.

Diagnostic Ultrasound, D.L. King (ed). On Society. Mosby 1974. The History of Ultrasound in studies Gynecology 1950 - 1980 by of social media Professor Salvator Levi : Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 23 pp481-552, 1997. Early history of Diagnostic ultrasound:The role of the American Radiologists by Drs.Goldberg, Gramiak and Freimanis : American Journal of of manchester, Roentgenology, vol 160, pp 189-194, 1993. Diagnostic Ultrasound during the early years of A.I.U.M. by Dr. Joseph Homles : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 8, pp 299-308, 1980. A History of AIUM by Dr. Joseph Holmes, 1980. An historical review of Ultrasonic Investigations at the National Acoustic Laboratories by Dr. George Kossoff : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 3, pp 39-44, 1975.

Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. Radiology - An illustrated History by Professor Ronald L. Eisenberg. Mosby Year Book 1992.

Ultrasonic diagnosis in Gynecology and Obstetrics by S Mizuno. Vol 19, no.2, Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi pp.171-175, 1967. (in Japanese). The Dawn of Diagnostic Ultrasound by Toshio Wagai, 1987. (In Japanese) Forty Years of Obstetric Ultrasound by Margaret B McNay and John EE Fleming. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 25:3-56, 1999. Looking at the Unborn: Historical Aspects of Obstetric Ultrasound - Witness seminar transcript. The Impact Of Social On Society. Wellcome Witness to The Power Twentieth Centurty Medicine. E M Tansey, D A Christie, eds.

January 2000. Diagnostic Ultrasound -- Proceedings of the first International Conference, University of Pittsburg, 1965. The Impact Of Social Media On Society. Edited by CC Grossman, JH Holmes, C Joyner and EW Purnell. Plenum Press, New York. 1066. - Every effort has been made to pharmacy ensure accuracy in dates, persons and events.

- It is not possible to include all the names who have contributed significantly to the advancement of Obstetrical and Gynecological sonography, some who may have been less well-known than the others and of social, some who may not have published so extensively in the English language. Apologies are extended to those whose contribution has not been fully credited in this article. All original contents Copyright 1998-2002 Joseph SK Woo MBBS, FRCOG. All Rights Reserved.

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Topic 1: Medical Diagnostic Imaging. The history of medical imaging has included a number of different imaging systems and innovators, but it is fairly clear that the story really starts with Wilhelm Rontgen (1845-1923). In 1895, Wilhelm Rontgen was experimenting with discharging electrical current in 'Crookes' tubes, when he noticed that a barium platinocyanide coated screen across the room was glowing, despite the tube being encased in of social cardboard. Whilst experimenting with holding items between the tube and the screen, he soon found that the mysterious rays would pass through his flesh, but cast an outline of The Power Tea Essay his bones on the screen. These findings were published in the Wurzburg Physical-Medical Journal, and as the on society, world realised the medical value of the X-ray, Rontgen was awarded the first Nobel prize for physics in 1901. The X-ray went on celts to become a vital tool to the medical profession (although its dangers were not appreciated until much later), but the next steps in internal medical imaging were not made until the end of World War II. The development of magnetic resonance is attributed to of social on society, the work of Felix Bloch and who wrote the play, Edward Purcell in 1946, who independently discovered the presence of magnetic resonance in solids and liquids. They were able to create devices that would show images of these fields, and they were awarded the Nobel prize in 1952 for their work. During the period 1950-1970, nuclear magnetic resonance was developed for chemical and physical molecular analysis, rather than medical applications. In 1967, the next developments in NMR were made by media, Paul Lauterbur, who found that a photographic-style image could be generated using magnetic resonance (previously this had only been possible using light and x-rays). At about the same time, a physician named Raymonde Damadian discovered that malignant body tissue had a different spectrum than normal tissue.

In 1974 he was able to savannah papers, produce a crude image of a tumor in a rat, and in 1976 he produced an image of the human body which took four hours to the impact, complete. These early MRI scanners were able to display results in tomographic layers, and would certainly have been impossible to construct without the development of digital computers and electronics. Meanwhile, a different medical imaging system had been developed by British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories. Hounsfield invented Computed Tomography(CT) imaging in 1972. This scanning technique involves combining x-ray images from a detector that rotates 360 degrees around the subject.

A dedicated computer extrapolates this information into a two-dimensional image of the scanned 'slice'. The first CT scanners were installed between 1974 and 1976, becoming widely available by legal studies, 1980. The main importance of this was that it showed that hospitals were willing to pay for expensive medical imaging machines. The first CT scanner took several hours to aquire the raw data for a 'slice', and days to reconstruct a single image from this data! Increases in technology have decreased the time taken for the impact on society, a scan, with a modern CT scanner able to scan a 'slice' in university of manchester pharmacy about 100ms, and reconstruct an image in less than a second. In parallel to the establishment of CT scanners in general use, Damadian continued his work, setting up a company to sell his MRI medical imaging machines. Of Social! The next major innovation in the field of MRI was made by Dumoulin, who perfected MRI angiography in 1988. This scanning technique allows imaging of flowing blood without the use of where originate contrasting agents. In 1989 echo-planar imaging was introduced, which allowed image acquisition at video rates; vital for the real-time systems which are being developed for the future. Very recent developments in the field of MRI (1999) have been made in the development of the impact on society image-guided neurosurgery, with an open-magnet MRI machine designed by General Electric Medical Systems and critical legal, innovative software written by the AI laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The function of of social on society this system is to take MRI scans and MRI angiograms, and combine these to create a three dimensional model of the patient's head and brain tissues, which is overlayed in virtual reality over that Cause, the surgeon's point of view as surgery takes place.

X-rays are electromagnetic radiation ranging in wavelength from about 10 nm to 0.001 nm. They effect a photographic emulsion in the same way that light does. Media On Society! Absorption of X radiation by a substance depends upon its density and atomic weight. When the human body is of the Tea Essay, x-rayed, the bones, which are composed of the impact on society elements of higher atomic weight, absorb more radiation and cast darker shadows on the photographic plate. Computed Tomography is based on the x-ray principle; as x-rays pass through the body they are absorbed or weakened at differing levels. Inside the CT machine is a semi-circular detector that measures the x-rays strength. This detector and the x-ray tube are mounted on othello a rotating frame that spins around the body of the patient taking roughly 1000 snapshots from different angles; every 360 degree rotation, a 'slice' is scanned. The x-ray tube may be focussed to a certain slice width (resolution) using lead shutters. The software which drives the CT scanner has the complex task of taking the the impact on society, 1000 x-ray images and backwards reconstructing a two dimensional image of the the play, 'slice' which was scanned. There is a dedicated computer inside the scanner devoted to this task of dealing with the raw CT data.

Magnetic resonance imaging is based on the absorption and emission of media energy in the radio frequency range of the The that Cause Thalassemia Essay, electromagnetic spectrum. The human body is primarily fat and water, and therefore contains approximately 63% hydrogen atoms. Magnetic resonance imaging primarily images the NMR signal from the hydrogen nuclei, which each comprise a single proton. The proton possesses a property called spin, which will cause the nucleus to produce an NMR signal. In an MRI scanner, an enormous superconducting electromagnet (cooled by liquid helium) generates a powerful magnetic field. This field generates a steady state of hydrogen nuclei within the body. Within the magnet are gradient coils for producing a gradient in the X, Y and of social, Z directions. Inside the where did the celts originate, gradient coils is the on society, RF coil, which produces the magnetic pulse necessary to university, stimulate the hydrogen nuclei, and the impact on society, rotate the where, spins by 90 or 180 degrees. The RF coil also detects the signals from the spins within the body. ( appendix 1 ). The scan room must be shielded from the impact of social on society, external RF signals, to The that Essay, stop them from being picked up by of social media, the imager. A piece of equipment called a quadrature detector converts the signals returned from the RF coil into X and Y components.

This data is fed to the computer, which builds up a cross-section image similar to that obtained from a CT scanner. Once interpreted by savannah papers, the built-in algorithms, both CT and MRI machines produce two dimensional bitmap images of cross sections of the the impact media on society, patient. One type of additional processing which software commonly does is the automatic separation and colour coding of who wrote tissue types. This is really a segmentation task that falls within the of social on society, topic of computer vision. The type of segmentation described in The Mutations that Cause Thalassemia Essay Image Guided Surgery is fairly simple; each voxel must be labelled by tissue type and combined with like voxels into indentifiable structures. There isn't any explanation of how this would happen, but having read some books on segmentation of images (notably Boyle/Thomas), I think that it is most probable that Histogram Segmentation is being used here. The histogram distribution of the values of all the pixels in the image is calculated. Then, the troughs in the graph are discovered (where fewer pixels of that colour exist), and this point is media, deemed to be the savannah papers, threshold . Any pixels with values over the threshold are grouped with the brighter pixels. Those pixels with values below the of social media on society, threshold are grouped with the darker pixels. A diagram of such a graph is in appendix 1. For specific areas of the anatomy, a program may sometimes be able to label easily distinguished areas (generally by the pixel values and general shape).

Other areas may be more ambiguous, with difficulty distinguishing the different pixel values. Human help can be enlisted here, with a technician picking out a group of pixels that clearly belong to who wrote othello, a certain tissue. The software can then examine the other pixels in the image and assign them to the group that their value most closely matches. In one of the systems I looked at (M.I.T. / G.E.M.S. image-guided surgery using MRI), the 'slices' from the imager were combined to create a 3-D model. This technique is not limited to image-guided systems, either; often it can help anatomical study to have 3-D computer models to examine. The pixels of the of social media on society, 'slices' are given Z-coordinates (based on the position of the 'slice' in the scan), and become full-dimensional voxels (volume elements). This three dimensional voxel-based object may be rotated to any desired angle using software, or the voxels may be connected using flat faces or gouraud shading to render the object at of the Tea Essay, any desired quality.

In the image-guided surgery software, the the impact media on society, scanned body part (head) is rotated to match the patient's real head as seen from the surgeon's point of university pharmacy view. Of the three main internal medical imaging techniques discussed, there are definite differences between the effectiveness, cost and the impact media on society, safety of the systems. The x-ray picture has served the medical profession for more than a hundred years, but it has two major disadvantages: Firstly, the legal, aspect of safety. The Impact Media On Society! It was not generally accepted that exposure to x-rays could be harmful until the the play othello, early pioneers started to suffer the marks and scars of radiation, and die. Although proper precautions are taken nowadays by the impact on society, x-ray operators, and the dosages delivered are much smaller, it is still not very desirable to irradiate patients, and legal, as a consequence, the operator is restricted in the number of plates they may expose.

Secondly, x-rays are less effective than both CT scanners and MRI, since they only depict a two dimensional view of the patient from a certain angle. The Computed Tomography scan is an of social on society improvement over the x-ray picture mainly because, like MRI, a series of 'slices' may be computed showing cross-sections of the patient. CT scanners have the originate, advantage of being based on simpler technology than MRI systems (cheaper), but they still suffer from the problem of exposing the patient to doses of the impact media on society ionising radiation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems are better at demonstrating anatomy than CT scanners, and also more sensitive to diseased tissue. The Power Tea Essay! Using MRI angiography allows pictures of flowing blood without the necessity of marker agents necessary to make veins show up on x-ray/CT scans. The patient is not exposed to any radiation during the scan. My personal opinion is that MRI systems are the best of the the impact on society, three techniques, however they are also very expensive through being technologically advanced. Any CT scanner or magnetic resonance imaging system used to require the patient to lie full length inside the machine, whilst the scanner generated the images.

This sometimes causes problems with people who are claustrophobic or very fat; either they will not or they cannot lie in the aperture. To some extent, this is now being remedied by The Power, the introduction of open-magnet MRI machines. Computer generated imagery (whether two dimensional or three dimensional, real-time or preliminary) has proved itself invaluable in the field of modern medicine. The main advantage is the impact, that invasive surgery is unnecessary to find out the position, shape and healthiness of internal structures. Savannah Papers! A diagnosis can be made on the impact of social the strength of the digital images, which are likely to give a clearer indication of details than surgery would in any case. The benefits of invasive surgery being avoided are obvious; surgery is of manchester, always a risk to of social media, the patient's health, and not operating increases their chances of where did the celts originate recovery. If surgery does prove necessary, then computer images/models will prove invaluable to the surgeon, allowing him to plan the operation in detail beforehand, and making the the impact, surgery quicker and more effective. Finally, there are the general benefits of The Mutations that Thalassemia any kind of digital imagery, in the impact of social that the data is easily stored, compressed, or transmitted to a colleague maybe hundreds of miles away. In terms of scope for savannah papers, future improvements in the computer-assisted analysis of medical imaging, obviously a computer program that was able to actually diagnose medical problems from images would be a tremendous asset to the impact media, the medical profession, but realistically this kind of decision is likely to continue to be made by doctors for the foreseeable future. In the not-so distant future is the impending design of hardware and software capable of extending the image-guided surgery techniques recently developed, to allow real-time rebuilding of the of manchester pharmacy, three dimensional model which assists the neurosurgeon during surgery.

The scope of the possible applications for image-guided surgery in the future is enormous; in radiotherapy, for media, instance, the radiotherapist can ensure that the beams of radiation converge accurately at the desired anatomical site, with minimal damage to surrounding tissue. The size and position of tumors may also be easily reviewed before and after radiation or drug treatment. Investigation has already commenced into whether three dimensional representations built from MRI scans might be more effective at early detection of breast cancer than mammograms. There are still considerable challenges for did the, software authors in media the field of real-time updated image-guided surgery. Considerable problems still exist with creating representations of of manchester pharmacy moving organs; models can quickly become inaccurate when the patient breathes.

Algorithms are currently under development to try to predict tissue deformations in such cases.

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1998 College Board Ap Us Dbq Essays and Research Papers. The Impact Media On Society! AP United States History 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College . Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges , universities and of manchester pharmacy, other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and the impact media, services in. Advanced Placement , American Civil War , College Board 1873 Words | 6 Pages. Celts! ?Elliott Gengo AP US DBQ Summary 10/7/14 Document A Thomas Jefferson wrote to Gibeon Granger . The Impact Of Social Media On Society! about the powers of the states. Jefferson believes the country is too large to have a single federal government. He believes that the states should have some power too. Jefferson says the Republicans have accepted these rights from the Constitution and who wrote the play, the federalists have opposed them. Document B Jefferson tells Samuel Miller that the Constitution doesnt give the federal government.

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Document Based Question Guidelines for university of manchester, DBQs (document based questions): On the AP exam, you will encounter a specialized type of essay . known as a DBQ . Although these are often intimidating at first, students eventually learn that the DBQ is their friend. If you can master the the impact of social media on society skill of writing a good DBQ , it doesnt matter what question the College Board throws at you in Mayyou can handle it! 1.The DBQ is where did the, essentially a short research essay where someone else has done all the the impact of social media on society research for. 19th century , 21st century , 2nd millennium 1379 Words | 4 Pages. AP WORLD HISTORY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2Continuity/Change Over Time BASIC CORE (competence) 07 Points 1. Has acceptable . thesis. 1 Point The thesis correctly specifies both change and continuity in that Cause Thalassemia the formation of national identity in the region of the Middle East, Southeast Asia, OR Sub-Saharan Africa from 1914 to the present. The thesis must be explicitly stated in media the introduction or the conclusion of the essay. The thesis may appear as one sentence or as multiple.

Africa , All rights reserved , Ethiopia 1129 Words | 5 Pages. US History AP Outline Chapter 17 The Transformation of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 I. Native Americans and savannah papers, the . Trans-Mississippi West a. The Plains Indians i. Three major sub regions: -The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and Texas: the Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa. American Old West , Cheyenne , Great Plains 1789 Words | 6 Pages. Isabella Granger 12/30/12 AP Euro Hist. DBQ essay The power of the impact media on society, Nobility For many . centuries, the lucky people were born into noble families. It didnt matter if they turned out to be as great as their other family members.

They were born noble and nothing could possibly take that away from savannah papers them. The greatness of a person could only media on society, be recognized by which family they were born into. In the 16th century, this started to change. Those who worked hard and savannah papers, did actions. Gentry , Louis XIII of France , Louis XIV of France 1022 Words | 3 Pages. invention of the impact of social on society, shipping costs which farmers were very dissatisfied with. To explain further, it states in The Mutations Essay the Prairie Farmer of 1877, Some time ago they . The Impact Media On Society! carried a law through the Illinois legislature, which provides for the limiting of freight rates by a board of officials appointed for savannah papers, this purpose.

The railroads, of course opposed this, and it was carried to the United States Supreme Court to test its constitutionality. (Document C) These laws were called Granger Laws that established the maximum railroads. Agriculture , Government , History of technology 1455 Words | 4 Pages. Cynthia Ms. The Impact Of Social Media! Conboy AP U.S. History 25 January 2012 After the 13th Amendment was passed, African American slaves were freed from their . Where Originate! lifetime involuntary servitude, and life for them seemed to be on the way to happiness (Document A). Of Social! An economy that worked without slaves was a new concept to the South; freedmen were joyous about the play othello it, and white planters loathed it. The United States underwent a sort of revolution in its economy and its social hierarchy (Document D). After the Civil War ended.

African American , American Civil War , Black people 717 Words | 2 Pages. ? US AP TERMS: 1920s Fordney- McCumber Tariff- Created in 1922 raised American tariffs in order to protect factories and . The Impact Media On Society! farms. Congress displayed a pro-business attitude in passing the tariff and in that Essay promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to Europe, which in turn bought more American goods. The Impact Of Social Media On Society! This was a result of of the Tea Essay, WWI, because the government wanted to ensure economic self-sufficiency so that no future enemy could manipulate the American economy. Also, many industries wanted to. On Society! African American , Albert B. Fall , Ernest Hemingway 1380 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ Essay The game of cricket between 1880-2005 played a very important political role in South Asia. Cricket both strengthened the . relationship between Britain and India, and created good social changes.

Although, the game weakened the religious and political rivalry according to the different perspectives of ten different sources. Did The Celts Originate! Cricket helped unify and strengthen the relationship between Britain and of social media, India. As shown in document 3, Cecil Headlam, an English cricketer and historian, says that. The Play Othello! Cricket , India , India national cricket team 1040 Words | 3 Pages. The Impact Media On Society! 1990 Apush Dbq Paige Reinfeld Jacksonian DBQ The uproar of the people of the U.S. was heard after the corrupted . elections of 1824. It wasnt until 1828, the year the Jacksonians came into pharmacy, power and the impact on society, satisfied the popular demand after a mudslinging battle against the aristocrats. The Jacksonian Democrats claime Premium 599 Words 3 Pages Jacksonian Democrats: Oppressors of the Common Man Keegan Kylstra 12/9/12 APUSH Darnell Jacksonian Democrats: Ruthless Oppressors. Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , History of the university of manchester pharmacy United States 1162 Words | 5 Pages. Bay colony was a stable , well ordered and well planned colony. The Impact Of Social! The Chesapeake colony was not well planned and savannah papers, as organized as the New England Colony (doc c) . . The emigrant list in doc c. was less detailed then the New England colony and this shows us the lack of organization. The people in this colony often took oaths on supremacy and wanted to migrate due to freedom.

England was primogeniture , the the impact media oldest son inherited everything and the second and third born sons didn't really have an university, opportunity. The Impact Of Social Media On Society! Connecticut , Connecticut Colony , Human migration 563 Words | 2 Pages. AP Psychology Free Response Questions Sample The following questions are samples of the free response questions from past . AP Psychology exams. The free response sections are worth 33 1/3 percent of the critical legal studies total grade. Students have 50 minutes to of social, answer two questions. The key to successfully answering these questions is to: completely define the terms using appropriate psychological terminology and who wrote othello, then critically apply each term. Many students concentrate their efforts on the impact on society, the multiple-choice.

Free response , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 1439 Words | 6 Pages. membership reaches 5 million Scopes Trial Evolution, Tennessee Model T Ford drops to cost $290 (3 months wages) Scarface Al Capone begins 6 years of . Savannah Papers! gang warfare Nellie Tayloe Ross elected Governor of Wyoming, First woman governor of a U.S. State US troops occupy Nicaragua Lindberghs first solo flight across the Atlantic; Sacco and Vanzetti executed; Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs for the Yankees; Al Jolson stars in of social media on society The Jazz Singer, the of the Tea Essay first talking film U.S. citizenship granted to the impact of social media on society, inhabitants. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , Democratic-Republican Party 416 Words | 3 Pages. Broderick Haney AP Euro Period: 1 14 September 2012 The Progressive Peasant Revolution Inhabiting the Holy Roman Empire in the 16th . century, the upper class considered peasants a mere subhuman. Conversely, Martin Luther, a German professor of theology, influenced reformation to the German state. This reformation focused on the peasants, especially the peasant revolt of 1524.

As the revolution continued, the Peasant Parliament formed to coordinate activates and savannah papers, strive for optimistic results. Bourgeoisie , Feudalism , Middle class 1352 Words | 4 Pages. ?Writing In AP US History U.S. The Impact Media! History Essay Writing / Exam Information The AP U.S. Othello! History Exam is 3 hours and . 15 minutes long and includes both a 100-minute multiple-choice / short-answer section (Part I) and a 95-minute free-response section (Part II). Each section is divided into the impact, two parts, as shown in the table below. Student performance on these four parts will be compiled and weighted to determine an AP Exam score. AP Scores are 5 1. Section Question Type Number of Questions Timing Percentage. American Civil War , Greek loanwords , Historiography 1641 Words | 6 Pages.

DBQ After the that Thalassemia Essay devastation of of social media on society, World War I, the vast majority of people saw the world in who wrote the play a totally different light. So many people had died. . The future of society seemed pessimistic and dark at best. The Big Four had come together in France to sign the Treaty of Versailles, officially ending the war in 1918. I agree with the statement that the Treaty of Versailles was ill-created, bringing about far more problems than it solved and later paving the road to World War II. Political, social, and economic. Adolf Hitler , Armistice with Germany , League of Nations 880 Words | 3 Pages. the bottom quarter of family income went to one of the 238 most selective colleges , compared with 78 percent of students from the top quarter . Media! (Markell). Certainly, these numbers show that students that come from low income families arent getting the opportunities that they deserve. With college costs going nowhere but up, students from low-income families face tough decisions. Some students choose to attend community college while some make the decision to take out additional loans.

There are also. College , Community college , Education 1595 Words | 5 Pages. ? Payne 1 Max Payne AP English 11 Ms. The Power Of The Tea Essay! Paul 13 November 2012 The Rise and Fall It is November 9, the Year of Our Lord 1799, and a . battered French army begins the arduous climb up the Alps, just as a light snow begins to gently fall, a precursor of the hardship and bone chilling temperatures to on society, come. They are led by the newly crowned consulate and Frances savior, Napoleon Bonaparte. There is a fear that Genoa may fall to Austrians. This fateful journey was captured in savannah papers a painting by artist. Charlotte Corday , First French Empire , French Revolution 1080 Words | 3 Pages. The Impact Of Social On Society! Unit 2 DBQ : Discuss the extent to savannah papers, which the religious schism during the the impact on society sixteenth century was symptomatic of political, social, and legal, economic . problems. The religious schism took place in the impact of social the 16th century, mainly between the of manchester Catholic Church and Protestants. During these times, many changes were brought forth to Europe during this schism. Although the the impact religious schism brought forth an age of Reformation of the The Power Tea Essay Catholic church, the religious schism started wars, revolts across Germany following.

Anglicanism , Catholic Church , Christianity 789 Words | 3 Pages. Media On Society! which is what caused the religious tension between the countries when this tournament should be about the brotherhood of the countries and coming together. . In document 8, Mohandas Gandhi is where celts, stating that the competition between the institutions and colleges is ok but he does not understand why the religious countries are involved. He disagrees with using religion as unsportsmanlike divisions and disagrees with the of social use of cricket to studies, meet political needs. Document 8, again Mohandas Gandhis point of. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , England cricket team 1070 Words | 4 Pages. AP US HISTORY Summer Assignment Francis Lewis HS 1. What distinguished the on society American Revolution from others? . The American Revolution was different from all other revolutions because it was the first successful attempt that established a government. Another thing that distinguished this revolution from the others is that it did not occur from within.

2. Why does Ellis think this is significant? Ellis thinks that the distinguishing factors are significant because the American. Alexander Hamilton , Benjamin Franklin , Founding Fathers of the United States 1630 Words | 6 Pages. ?Julia Nash, Luke Ross Dr. Barnes AP European History Oct 10 2014 The peasants revolt in the German states between 1524 and 1526 was the did the celts . result of growing resentment towards the nobility and the church. The Impact Of Social Media On Society! Peasants, craftsmen, and university, poor soldiers formed small armies that destroyed infrastructure and demanded more rights. Of Social On Society! Although, the fighting did make the peasants demands known to the nobility, the revolt was harshly crushed killing more than 100,000 insurgents.

Among the many causes of the peasants. Of Manchester! Bavaria , Catholic Church , Church of England 1014 Words | 5 Pages. The Impact! DBQ : Rise and Fall of Ottoman Turkey, Safavid Iran, Mughal India What factors contemporaneous observers attributed the rise and fall of the . Muslim empires? which factors made them successful, which factors weakened empires? Discuss overall strengths and critical, weaknesses additional documents to help access rise and fall of Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals? Documents: Document 1: SAFAVID great liking for warfare and weapons of warfine soldier and very skilled, and his men so dexteroususe of media on society, muskets?realm. Critical! Istanbul , Jahangir , Mughal Empire 1054 Words | 3 Pages. the of social on society way Japan deals with military issues that affect the country is in a western manor of bureaucracy. The Treaty of Portsmouth marked the end of the . Russo-Japanese War and is made to sound as if its a contract to say to Russia don't mess with us or we will mess you up, and has an air of Nationalism in it. All of the savannah papers documents in the group show that the west had slowly influenced just about every aspect of Japan. th th Japanese trade expanded in the 19 and early 20 centuries as in of social on society documents. University Of Manchester Pharmacy! 19th century 938 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ Introduction: In the late 18th century, Europe experienced a substantial amount of urbanization due to the increase of industrialized . factories, especially in on society the textile industry. Question: Describe the university of manchester inventions that improved production and the European marketplace through the pre-Industrial Revolution.

How did these advances affect social classes? Document 1: Letter from Leeds Cloth Merchants (a major center of wool manufacture in Yorkshire), 1791. Of Social Media! Defending the use of machines. . Industrial Revolution , Loom , Pg. 99 826 Words | 3 Pages. ? AP U.S. History Summer HW Sec. 1: 1. The settlers were finally able to who wrote the play, get food when the the impact Indians decided to give them corn and bread. . The problems that still remained were that they were once again running out of food and they had no houses to live in. This led to sickness and starvation amongst the settlers. 2. The indications that Smith gave that morale and leadership were problems for the young colony were that their president of the colony, Captain Wingfeild, was deposed of his presidency.

Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1524 Words | 5 Pages. Aaron Burr gained New York's electoral votes for Jefferson. Jefferson was called a negro president because he was an illegitimate embodiment of the slave . power that the southern states wielded in the nation. When there is a tie in the Electoral College , it can only The Mutations Thalassemia, be broken by the House of Representatives. 4. Jefferson called the election of 1800 a revolution because it was comparable to that of 1776. The transition of power was revolutionary because it was the peaceful and orderly transfer. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , James Madison 1373 Words | 4 Pages. AP United States History Document-Based Question After its victory over Britain in the War of 1812, the United States of America became . immersed in national pride which led to the impact media, Era of Good Feelings, a period of unprecedented political unity. However, problems and disagreements grew behind the The Cause Essay facets of the the impact of social era that manifested nationalism. Sectionalism began to form as the dissent between the north and the south and different political figures intensified. Divergence among politicians was.

American Civil War , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 957 Words | 3 Pages. AP BIOLOGY 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Note: At least 1 point must be earned from each of parts (a), (b), (c), and university of manchester pharmacy, (d) in order to . earn a maximum score of 10. The ability to reproduce is a characteristic of life. (a) Describe the media process of embryological development in a typical vertebrate embryo, beginning with a fertilized egg and ending with the development of three tissue layers. (4 points maximum) Embryological process Fertilization Cleavage (can occur in other stages) . Cell division , Cellular differentiation , Developmental biology 1445 Words | 11 Pages. world? How is your opinion similar to or different from the savannah papers purpose of education in the years between 1860 and 1900? Cite specific evidence to support . The Impact Of Social Media! your position. Critical Legal! 3. Describe the factors (1860 1900) that led the farmer, the backbone of the US economy, to on society, organize against pharmacy capitalists (industrialists) and the impact of social, government. 4. Explain specific ways that the Farmers Alliance movement addressed the factors that led to organization. Chapter 17 Or Does It Explode? 1. What is Zinns.

Africa , History of the United States , Martin Luther King, Jr. 623 Words | 2 Pages. AP European History 24 October 2012 The Dutch: Divided and Deeply Indebted The signing of the Peace of Mutations that Cause Thalassemia, Westphalia in 1648 ended the the impact media on society Thirty . Years War and brought about the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, a coalition of the seven provinces of the Netherlands. Mutations! During the mid 17th century, the media Dutch became the wealthiest and most active trading and shipbuilding people in Europe. By dominating most trading routes in the Baltic and Atlantic Seas, the Dutch Republic earned recognition. Amsterdam , Baltic Sea , Dutch East India Company 1166 Words | 3 Pages.

Witchcraft DBQ (Many of the people who were persecuted as witches from the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries were those of a seemingly . inferior mindset, those who are blamed for problems in the community and savannah papers, those who were social outcasts.) This time period occurred throughout the the impact of social media Protestant, Catholic and Scientific revolutions. The victims of the savannah papers witch trials were usually persecuted in of social Europe as a whole however focused on university, areas like South Western Europe. Witches were usually people who were. Ageing , Death , Elderly care 1133 Words | 3 Pages. Crawford, and John Quincy Adams were all candidates for president in 1824. This is where the first split began.

All four candidates were from the Republican . Party. Andrew Jackson won the popular vote but failed to win the majority of the Electoral College . According to of social media on society, the constitution, the top three candidates would be voted on critical legal, in the House of Representatives. Clay is thus eliminated (as he received the 4th amount of votes). The Impact! Clay used his power as speaker of the House to throw his support to John. Andrew Jackson , Democratic-Republican Party , Henry Clay 1167 Words | 3 Pages. said that the artisan and farmer can not work nine days in a row (Document 9). Who Wrote The Play Othello! In an media, article in Gazette de France, it talks about the return to the . Gregorian calendar. It says that the new calendar was so weak that when it fell, it didn't even offer us an opportunity to exclaim about the fragility of human things. The article also says that it was sad that the names of the festivals were not not devoted to the benefactors of humanity, but were devoted to Essay, the cabbages, the media turnips, and the artichoke. Calendar reform , French Republican Calendar , Girondist 1027 Words | 3 Pages. saw the Natives as inferiors. Who Wrote! Step 2: Research Notes Use the chart below to keep track of primary and secondary source evidence you find that supports your . argument.

Be sure to media, fill out each column. The following primary sources can be found on the AP U.S. History Research Library: Thomas Morton, Manners and Customs of the Indians, an extract from his New English Cannon, 1637 Pedro Naranjo, Coexistence and Conflict in the Spanish Southwest: The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 Mary Rowlandson, Captivity. Colonialism , Indigenous peoples of the Americas , Latin America 1831 Words | 6 Pages.

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deaf again essays The Research Paper Factory. Communicating with Deaf Children By Nicole M Wyche January 18, 2010 Communicating with Deaf Children Who has the ability to define who or what illiteracy is? Researchers and doctors define illiteracy as the absence of knowledge that involves but is not confined to graphic marks. Of Social Media. It has been contended that the term may also apply to critical legal studies, the difficulty one experiences in the impact of social media on society, interpreting and using written materials in a variety of contexts, as well as the inability to take part in. Words: 502 - Pages: 3. One out of 10 americans has more degree of hearing loss, and one out of every four hundered is savannah papers profoundly deaf. Yet many hard-of-hearing which is on society a term used to describe mild to moderate hearing loss and deaf people in this country do not consider themselves handicapped.

They do not believe their hearing loss makes them less- just different, and they look upon the play othello, the deaf community as a sperate culture; as rich and diverse as that of the hearing world. The Impact Media. (Turkingston, Sussman 4). The deaf. Words: 2151 - Pages: 9. CREDITS TITLE: pudchya varshi lavkar ya ! (Come again early next year) DURATION: 9:05 mins PRODUCER: NATIONAL INSTITUE OF DESIGN DIRECTOR: prashant kadkol LANGUAGE: hindi / English SCRIPT: prashant kadkol ANIMATION: prashant kadkol COMPOSITING EDITING: binoj john SOUND RECORDING: atul chauhan SOUND: prashant kadkol SYNOPSIS TITLE: pudchya varshi lavkar ya ! 2D ANIMATION FILM DURATION: 9:05 mins Dancing elephants celebrate the Lord Ganesha in this riveting animated film that. Words: 285 - Pages: 2. encourages them to speak for themselves and stand up for their beliefs. He teaches honor and where celts, history of the Deaf culture and makes sure he and of social media on society, his students are heard.

He believes in our country and believes we should too, hearing person or not. University. Keith Nolan has changed many lives of his students with the accomplished teacher he has become and his desire to pass on his avid love for life, education and the Military. He has also proved time and again that he has earned his title of of social, Cadet Private in the. Words: 737 - Pages: 3. The American Society for the Deaf Children. Running head: HUMAN SERVICE ORGANIZATION Human Service Organization Building Community in Human Service Organizations BSHS 461 December 7, 2011 The American Society For Deaf Children (2010) website states that the American Society for Deaf Children (ASDC) began in 1967 for parents to help each other through the network.

ASDC is an university independent, national non-profit organization that helps millions of parents, families, and of social, friends with questions he or she may have to help their. Words: 1091 - Pages: 5. ASL Deaf Event: Signmark Concert This past Thursday, I attended the Signmark concert hosted by savannah papers, Penn In-Hand. Signmark is a deaf Finnish rap artist that considers his music as being party hip hop that takes a stand. The Impact On Society. He is the of manchester, first deaf artist to ever be signed to an international record label. Of Social On Society. There was a diverse group of ages, ethnicities, and gender that attended. The event was held at the Rotunda on 40th and Walnut along the center main stage with Signmark and his speaking interpreter. Words: 640 - Pages: 3. Integrating Deaf Children Into Mainstream Schools.

The purpose of this assignment is to reflect on my own experience of integrating a deaf child into a mainstream school. Savannah Papers. To explore how other learning disabilities can be identified, to develop a general strategy and establish good teaching practice when working with children that have hearing difficulties. To understand the importance of early identification of partial deafness whilst understanding the implications of having a hearing disability in on society, relation to peers and savannah papers, child interaction. Words: 3387 - Pages: 14. Chaos is Come Again Is it easy to turn a sane, loving man into a murderer? The famous play Othello, The Moor of Venice by of social media, William Shakespeare introduces the story of a brave black general in a predominantly white society, who has fallen in love with Desdemona, and struggles to see the true character of those around him. The Power Tea Essay. Iago his close friend was driven by jealousy to manipulate everyone he came in contact with.

Othello is accepted by the Venetian leaders because his dedication to their. Words: 1096 - Pages: 5. Dating back to 1000 B.C., the Torah protected the the impact on society, deaf from being cursed by others, but did not allow them to participate fully in the rituals of the Temple. Special laws concerning marriage and property were established for deaf-mutes, but deaf-mutes were not allowed to be witnesses in the courts. (Camp) During 1500-1620 there were many influences from Italian and who wrote othello, Spanish educators for of social on society, deaf children. Italian physician Girolamo Cardano was the first to challenge the pronouncements of. Words: 1030 - Pages: 5. On Deaf Culture Deaf culture is usually found in of the Tea Essay, Deaf schools, and the impact on society, Deaf Clubs. Pharmacy. Having Deaf culture depends on the person and how they accept being deaf.

This is different for every deaf person, depending on their situation. At Deaf school is the impact media where culture begins. Here everyone is equal and they can interact with other deaf kids. This gives them a since of actually belonging somewhere. Hearing people see the where did the celts, Deaf schools as a dumping ground for media on society, deaf kids.

When in actuality it is a place for the. Words: 1377 - Pages: 6. 17 Again By Burr Steers In this essay, I am going to analysis a moving image text through the film techniques and media theories I have learnt in this term. The film is called 17 again, which is directed by The Mutations Cause Thalassemia, Burr Steers and written by Jason Filardi. This movie is the impact of social on society took place in USA and released in 10 April 2009. The budget of this movie is savannah papers $20000000 US and of social, the final gross is $64149837 US which is a great success.

This story is taking about the main character-Mike ODonnell ( Zac Efron. Words: 1387 - Pages: 6. New York Never Again Joey was staying out of the airplane. She was in USA because she wished to get a job there. Celts Originate. She wants to be model, and she knew that there were bigger chances to be stopped at the street, and asked to be a model here.

She wants to the impact of social on society, have her luggage, so she went to the distribution. She got her baggage, and went out to the street. There were a lot of savannah papers, people. Of Social. She wants to university of manchester pharmacy, go for a walk, and maybe gets something to eat. Of Social Media. Everything was beautiful, so she decided to take a.

Words: 550 - Pages: 3. Cultaral Comparison of Deaf Culture and Hearing Culture in the Usa. |Cultural Comparison of university of manchester pharmacy, Deaf Culture and Hearing Culture in on society, the USA | |(Using the Hofstede Cultural Comparison Assignment as a guide) | |Where Deaf Culture Would Score If Included in the Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Words: 3035 - Pages: 13. , but not with eyes! As Shakespeare said , Love is blind!. Where Did The Celts. Love is deaf! Love makes the world goes round! Firstly, when somebody is in the impact of social media, love you can feel it. People who fall in who wrote, love are just like the the impact of social media, sun. You can see the of manchester, sunrise and the sunset in their eyes, in their heart, everywhere!

They are blind! They can#x27;t see people around them, but just the one they love. They are deaf! They can#x27;t hear people gossiping or saying bad things, but just lovely whispers. Media. Love takes you to the. Words: 485 - Pages: 2.

Deaf People Should Not Use Sperm Donor Who Is Likely to Give Them a Deaf Child. Running head: DEAF PEOPLE SHOULD NOT USE SPERM DONOR WHO IS LIKELY TO GIVE THEM A DEAF CHILD Deaf People Should Not Use Sperm Donor Who Is Likely to Give Them a Deaf Child Course number and title Instructors name University Date Nowadays the topic to design or not to design a deaf child turns the debate over the play, designer babies, providing various specialists, such as genetics counsellors, ethicists, scientists and others with a dilemma. Some stated that it. Words: 748 - Pages: 3. America Deaf Culture After reading the book, Reading Between the the impact media, Signs, I realized that there was a big difference between the America deaf culture and my culture. Legal Studies. This book aimed at the audience who study sign language or sign language interpreters. It focused on the different aspects of culture instead of the language expression. Firstly, the author, Anna Mindess, describes the study of the culture. She cited the reference that Tylor said culture is that complex whole which. Words: 815 - Pages: 4. farther?

This concept started a whole new world for me. In my life, I really have never been exposed to sign language before. I think I have only met one real deaf person and he was about three and had a cochlear implant. So, the deaf community has never popped into my mind when it came to the impact media on society, things like this. I think that another big part of the movie, for me, was when the students from of the, Gallaudet University protested against their new president because she wasnt deaf. Again, this is not. Words: 537 - Pages: 3. Born Again The short story Born Again was written by Anne Billson. It was written in 1993. It is a postmodern story. Postmodernism is a term that describes the the impact on society, movement in arts, literature, culture, etc., that was an extension of modernism.

Postmodernism involved the break with the norms and ideals of the The that Cause Essay, modernism. Of Social. In postmodernism you often include the perception of common truths. Where Did The. Postmodernism is of social media on society a very hard term to define, since it is so abstract. Born Again is a story filled with. Words: 995 - Pages: 4. out hugs and Mutations that Essay, kisses a second round until were finally out the door and in the car. The Impact Of Social Media. My father always honks as a sign of saying goodbye again. The process of where did the celts originate, saying goodbye to ones closest friend at a deaf gathering typically entailed discussing on the location, date, and other specifics and one or more hugs(Holcomb 2011).

Deaf people would do this today even if they have electronics to on society, get in touch with family and friends to give them a heads but they rather do it face to face and same within. Words: 2381 - Pages: 10. Lauren Schneider ASL IV Tuesday/ Thursday 3:15 November 12, 2013 Deaf Event Paper 1 1. What was the who wrote, purpose of this assignment? The deaf event I chose to go to was a Sunday morning church service at the Deaf Outreach Church. The purpose was to observe and communicate with others using sign language that werent from on society, class. There is who wrote othello a difference from signing signs we are learning in media on society, class and savannah papers, holding a conversation with others. Of Social Media On Society. I needed to apply what I learned in the classroom to real. Words: 538 - Pages: 3. Aundre Thompson Andrea Corneil Media 103 December 10, 2013 Do the Right Thing Reaction Paper Do the Right Thing is the 1989 film, directed, written, produced by critical legal studies, and starring none other than the very talented, Spike Lee. The Impact Media On Society. It also stars an assorted cast of very talented actors that includes the likes of where did the celts originate, Danny Aiello, Ossie Davis, Ruby Dee, Richard Edson, Giancarlo Esposito, Bill Nunn, and John Turturro. New York City, New York is where the film is set, in the Brooklyn area in a.

Words: 1043 - Pages: 5. Introduction to on society, Deaf-World 1. The meaning of Deaf Culture is exactly what is stated- Culture of the Deaf. The Thalassemia. Traditions of the the impact media, Deaf Community, appropriate behaviors, morals, as well as the use of ASL. Studies. Deaf who are oral, and a bigger part of the media, hearing community are not considered to be a part of the Deaf Community, since they do not practice Deaf Culture. Not only are these traditions and behaviors apart of the Deaf Culture, one must participate as well as be active in the culture to where did the celts originate, be. Words: 546 - Pages: 3.

That it will never come again, by Emily Dickinson, explores the idea that life is beautiful and people should enjoy it while it lasts. The Impact Of Social. Dickinson feels that since life only happens once explains why it makes life so sweet. Savannah Papers. The poem then shifts the idea to that death feels like an appetite/ Precisely opposite. In the poem, the poet conveys the message that people should appreciate life by using sound devices and metaphors. Of Social. In the first stanza, the Mutations, poet utilizes sound devices to create the. Words: 358 - Pages: 2. The average American society consists of of social, hearing people who commonly approach deafness as a fault. Hearing people express to pity deaf people. They also admire how deaf people succeed in originate, a hearing world by overcoming a serious handicap. Deaf community has defined being deaf and hard of hearing as having nothing to do with how much you can hear!

It is the of social on society, knowledge of what deaf people face with certain limitation. We always work hardest efforts to gain acceptance in did the celts, hearing world. They embrace. Words: 1174 - Pages: 5. Let America Be America Again by Langston Hughes. Name Instructor Course Date of submission Let America Be America Again By Langston Hughes Theme: Freedom In his poem, let America be America again, Hughes focuses on American freedom and equality. His concern was on the socio-economic division in the American society.

Relating the American declaration at independence, Hughes observes that the the impact of social media on society, road to The Power Tea Essay, achievement of equality and freedom lost. The country has become corrupt and its leaders and businessmen are greedy. The grabbed land and. Words: 957 - Pages: 4. at it later on and try to memorize them, but thats hard to do when once I finish writing on word down, were onto the next one and I miss the sign completely. Other than that, Im very excited and nervous about the impact media on society, this video project. I feel like its going to determine how much weve actually learned these past two months and The Power of the, how much weve actually committed to the impact on society, memory. So I cant wait to where celts, see that.

I think the of social, number of deaf event papers we have to write is The Cause Thalassemia Essay a bit unfair considering most of us dont really have the time available to the impact of social, attend these events when they take place due to work or other commitments. I also miss having to do work in the textbooks because watching the DVDs also helped commit the signs to pharmacy, memory. Words: 329 - Pages: 2. Mariya Vorobeychik ASL 102 Deaf Event paper One of the best parts of the impact of social, taking ASL at UB is that we are required to attend deaf events. I think that going to an event is beneficial to learning ASL because you get to critical studies, experience an entirely different situation and observe other people and how they sign. I have learned going to media on society, each event that everyone signs a little different. Its like slang in English, some people sign a little differently from university of manchester pharmacy, others depending on where they went to school. Words: 311 - Pages: 2. Betty Waltermire Crime and Criminology JUS-110 January 25, 2014 Breaking Bad Again The stench in the air permeates and causing pneumonia, chemical bronchitis, possibly collapsed lungs.

These are just a few of the medical problems to suffer breathing fumes from the of social media, production of meth. Exposure to the chemicals used in meth production damages the who wrote, central nervous system, skin, kidneys and a. Words: 925 - Pages: 4. Defying the odds of the world despite being deaf In the American society, we tend to perceive hearing impairment or deafness as a disability, which in truth isnt really a disability at all. Instead many prefer to look at as a culture. Canada has mostly been recognized throughout the world as having the greatest hockey players. After doing research, I realized there has been one legally deaf player who played National Hockey League. Jim Kyte became the first noted and legally to date deaf NHL.

Words: 923 - Pages: 4. fully exercise human rights despite the precise construction and stringent implementation of the laws. Why? Filipinos are blind not to see violations and deviations from the law. They are mute not to speak of media on society, anything out from their ill observations. They are deaf not to hear cries out of exploitations and oppressions.

Change in approach or sudden recovery from numbness happens only when the Filipino is the one directly afflicted. Take-and-take. Its nothing really that damaging to a. Words: 753 - Pages: 4. How Alexander Graham Bell Hurt Deaf Culture. How Alexander Graham Bell Hurt Deaf Culture Alexander Graham Bell (AG Bell) is famous for inventing the telephone. AG Bell wanted to help deaf people because his wife was deaf. The telephone he invented had some amplification. He believed that his telephone would help the Tea Essay, deaf people to hear and communicate on the impact of social on society the telephone.

What he thought would help deaf people and other opinions he held made him notorious for the near destruction of American Deaf Culture. AG Bell was found to. Words: 519 - Pages: 3. | Hearing Dogs for pharmacy, The Deaf | National University | Professor Cortez | David Years | June 2014 | | Dogs are usually known as a mens (and womens) best friend. Of Social Media. They provide a strong bond/relationship that sometimes other humans cannot provide. After a hard days work your dog greets you at the door with a smile or a bark of happiness every time. Having grown up with many dogs and currently owning one now, I understand what it is to come home to a partner that truly loves. Words: 1074 - Pages: 5. The Drone Strikes Again Take a moment and imagine this: for every terrorist killed by a U.S. drone strike, 50 Pakistani civilians fall victims to these ruthless attacks.

According to pharmacy, an article written by of social media on society, David Kilcullen and Andrew McDonald from the NY Times, press reports suggest that over the last three years drone strikes have killed about 14 terrorist leaders. But, according to Pakistani sources, they have also killed some 700 civilians. This is The Thalassemia Essay 50 civilians for every militant killed, a. Words: 967 - Pages: 4. Technology Enhancing the Deaf Community. Nick Mendonca Mr. Picciuto Comp 5 Summer; 8-11:25am 17 June 2014 Technology for the Deaf We live in a world of increasingly rapid technological advancement. While we may not have Star Treks Universal Translator or Telepresence figured out the impact media, yet, we do have Communicators (cell phones!). Critical Legal. These advances have changed the way everyone communicates, but one community in particularthe Deaf communityis benefiting in the impact of social media, amazing ways.

New technologies are changing and university of manchester, enhancing everyday Deaf. Words: 1279 - Pages: 6. Never Again Ive had enough. Why am I living like this when I dont have to? I have my own life to live. Theres no reason as to why you, my own father, can control me.

I might only be 12 but I can make my own decisions. The Impact Media. Hey Dad, can I go to lunch with Mum? At this point I was cheerful and savannah papers, enjoying my morning Well that changed quickly. I didnt know what Id done. He lost it. I only asked to go to lunch, whats the big deal? He was completely mad at me. He was yelling at me until he. Words: 1034 - Pages: 5. Axe: It Cleans Us Up and Helps Us Remember so We Can Forget Again. Samuel Pierre III Professor Inman English 102-203 Essay #2 Analysis of an Essay Axe: It Cleans Us Up and Helps Us Remember So We Can Forget Again The commercials for the popular line of Axe body sprays are entertaining, to say the least. With just a few sprays of the impact of social on society, this female attractant in a can, women no longer have control of themselves, they are hungry and youre for dinner. The Power Of The Tea Essay. Now theres a new line of shower gels for the guy who women cant resist.

It. Words: 441 - Pages: 2. The distinguishing features of medieval drama are its Christian content and its didactic purpose. Vernacular plays typically dramatized the lives of the of social on society, saints, stories from the Bible, or moral allegories. The biblical cycle plays, sometimes called mystery plays, were originally performed under church auspices, but by the late 14th century they were produced under the supervision of craft guilds (misteres) and performed in public places on the feast of Corpus Christi or during Whitsuntide. Words: 292 - Pages: 2. Deaf women were able to get by really really interesting to see 2 different Sing Languages but able to understand one another. Experising my thoughts again on savannah papers the way communication was shared during the performances was jaw dropping: multiple interpertors for specific use either, translating for those needing Enlgish, ASL for needing ASL but on both ends of the stage and the impact on society, the amazing teaming for voicing. We discuss a lot how much a conflict between the hearing world and Deaf but for the first. Words: 251 - Pages: 2.

Thinking about another pregnancy Miscarriage* can be a very unhappy and frightening experience. Even some time later you may still be coping with feelings of shock and great sadness. You may also be feeling anxious about the future especially about trying again. The Power. This leaflet looks at feelings and some of the facts about pregnancy after miscarriage. It talks about of social media, deciding whether to The that Essay, try again, and about timing.

It also gives some information that may help you and your partner before. Words: 3750 - Pages: 15. American Sign Language Deaf Event. ASL 202 March 3, 2015 Silent Dinner at Culvers On March 3, 2015 I attended the Silent dinner Deaf event at Culvers. Of Social Media On Society. At this event, I signed with my friends; Lindsey, Cheyenne, Heather and a new girl I met from our class; Jayde. University Pharmacy. We took turns and signed everything on the worksheet describing our workplace, what our majors in college were and if we were doing anything for spring break.

After that we reviewed some vocabulary from units 13 and 14 together and ate some dinner. I then. Words: 339 - Pages: 2. New York Never Again: Joey was staying out on society, of the airplane. She was in USA because she would get a job there. Legal Studies. She wants to be model, and she knew that there were bigger chances to be stopped at the street, and asked to the impact of social, be a model here. She wants to have her luggage, so she went to of manchester, the distribution. She got her baggage, and went out to the street. The Impact Of Social. There were a lot of savannah papers, people. She wants to go for a walk, and maybe gets something to eat.

Everything was beautiful, so she decided to take a. Words: 381 - Pages: 2. Kris Kringle Prof. Of Social. Klump ENG 101 07/04/2021 Let America Be America Again America was once founded on where did the celts originate certain principles and the impact of social, ideas; to live a life free from Mutations that Cause Essay, tyranny, to have opportunities for self development, and for of social media on society, equal treatment amongst all people regardless of savannah papers, societal status. Langston Hughes portrays how these qualities fail to exist during a specific time in America in on society, a poem entitled Let America Be America Again. The speaker opens up the poem referring to Americas dream of. Words: 750 - Pages: 3. path.the christain communities in the orient which refused to abide by the decision of the council were ostracized. It was forbidden to critical legal studies, participate in jewish festivals. The observance of media, Sabbath as the day of where did the celts originate, rest was also forbidden: let the Christians not emulate the jews, and the impact of social media, not be idle on the Sabbath; they have to work on who wrote the play othello that day, as Christian they must honor only the day of Christ s resurrection, Sunday. A law of the year 321 corroborated again the duties of the jews to hold posts in the. Words: 2196 - Pages: 9.

Experience of the impact of social, Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adolescents. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HoH) experience unique challenges in public school settings. Savannah Papers. They often face academic and the impact on society, social obstacles that their normal hearing peers do not encounter. D/HoH adolescents especially tend to have less positive notions about themselves. Often they feel isolation and alienation from the play, peers in inclusive classrooms because of the language barrier. Due to of social media on society, this, social interactions that could foster feelings of belonging and celts, friendship with hearing peers. Words: 3263 - Pages: 14.

CASE 5. Of Social Media On Society. PR MOTORCYCLES: TILL WE MEET AGAIN Miss Amelia Rivera was a very effective training officer in one of the The Power of the Tea Essay, biggest appliance dealership in media, the Philippines. She was much satisfied with her job not only because of the pay she receives monthly, but also because the top management recognizes her value to the organization. Every morning, when she arrives to report for work, everyone she meets greets her out of courtesy and in university of manchester, deference to her rank. One day, while in a birthday party. Words: 488 - Pages: 2. 12/13/2015 MBA case till we meet again CASE: PR MOTORCYCLES: Till We Meet Again 1. ? ? MBA case till we meet again - CASE: PR MOTORCYCLES: Till We. Home ? Southwestern University (Philippines), Cebu City ? MBA ? MBA 503 ? MBA case till we meet again 1 of the impact media on society, 2 ? Download Document ? This preview has blurred sections.

Sign up to View Full Document ? CASE: PR MOTORCYCLES: Till We Meet Again 1. What, if any, did the Cause Thalassemia, president fail to of social on society, do? This is an issue of ethical. Words: 850 - Pages: 4. See You again, by savannah papers, Wiz Khalifa featuring Charlie Puth is a song that appeared in Furious 7 as a tribute to Paul Walker. The Impact. The lyrics are the main focus, but is heavily assisted by university of manchester pharmacy, the music. See You Again emits a very emotional aura. Of Social On Society. The song begins with a repeating piano line that sets the emotional mood for the song.

The voice of Charlie follows with the main focus being on the lyrics and the melody. Charlies voice really adds the savannah papers, emotional impact in this song as his high notes are filled with. Words: 317 - Pages: 2. Comparing On a Portrait of a Deaf Man with Brendon Gallacher On a Portrait of a Deaf Man (OPDM) and Brendon Gallacher both explore a variety of similar themes, which the poets (Betjeman and on society, Kay) use to present the characters accordingly. We find two characters that convey their love and anguish through their relationship with someone who has died ? albeit imaginative for the narrator in Brendon Gallacher. Thalassemia Essay. In Brendon Gallacher, Kay delves into the past experience of the of social on society, narrator and. Words: 1167 - Pages: 5. If at first you don#x27;t succeed try, try and try again. Robert the Bruce, king of Scotland, is meant to have told his troops this shortly before walloping the The Power of the, English at Bannockburn in of social on society, 1314.

The idiom, said to Tea Essay, have been inspired by a humble spider stoically weaving his web as Bruce hid from his English pursuers in a cave, is particularly appropriate too for the modern residents of Annan, ancestral home of the Bruce lineage, who have erected a statue of the king after a 130-year delay. Words: 371 - Pages: 2. Deaf Employment in the Professional Sector. Amber Kiker Kiker 1 Professor McCarthy English 102 August 12, 2015 Deaf Employment in the impact media, the Professional Sector Profound hearing loss affects millions of people in the United States today. Did The. According to the Gualledette Research Institute there are currently over a million people between the ages of 6 and 65 who are Deaf (Harrington 1).

While several state and federally funded programs have been implemented to support early and of social on society, post-secondary education for the Deaf, evidence.

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colors essay writing So, your professor just gave you a new assignment, and it looks like an interesting topic. The Impact Media On Society. The problem is you dont know how to write a narrative essay. Relax (but dont procrastinate)! Narrative essays are actually pretty fun to savannah papers, write.

Whats more, they dont usually require much research since they are typically based on your life experiences. All that said, there are some important rules to the impact of social media on society, follow. This blog post will tell you all about narrative essays and teach you how to write a narrative essay that stands out. Narration is writing that tells a story. A good way to wrap your mind around a narrative is to think about how a narrator in a film presents a scene.

He tells the story from a particular perspective, giving a detailed account of what happened. Consider the savannah papers, narration in this clip from How the of social, Grinch Stole Christmas : So, how is the savannah papers, narrators recounting of the Grinchs failure to steal Christmas related to learning how to write a narrative essay? As the media on society, narrator in your essay, you set the scene and tell the story from your viewpoint, giving a detailed report of events. Chances are, you narrate stories every day. I mean, didnt you just tell your friend all about that funny thing that happened in did the celts, class earlier? You know how to narrate. Media. So, writing a narrative essay should be easy, right? Well, hold on, its not that simple. The Play Othello. One of the challenges with writing narrative essays is that you often have to distill a complex story into a limited (and to-the-point) number of words. At the same time, you have to garner enough interest to keep the reader engaged in your story. Anyone can tell a story, but not everyone can tell a story that captures an audience.

Its important to media, keep some rules in mind as you learn how to write a narrative essay. The best way to learn how to The that Thalassemia Essay, write a narrative essay is to see an example. The Impact. Im going to pharmacy, pretend that Im the character Rudy (from the 1993 film Rudy ), and the impact of social media Im going to The Power of the Tea Essay, write a narrative essay about something that happened in of social, my (Rudys) life. First, watch this clip from the that Cause Thalassemia Essay, film: Now, I will write a sample narrative essay, as if this clip were based on my experience. Just as with a true narrative essay, my memory of the experience may be slightly different than the reality of the experience. The Impact Of Social. You always have some creative license with narrative essayswhether they are fictional or not. Read this sample essay first, and then Ill break it down into its elements: A janitor changed my life.

I was at a low point, ready to quit everythingeven when I had it all. I didnt realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and the play othello nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. The Impact Of Social. But, that didnt stop me from believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the critical studies, most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out of social on society that I hadnt made the The Power, dress list for our kickoff game.After fighting to be on the team and sweating through every practice, I was going to the impact of social media on society, sit on the benchagain. So, I decided to call it quits. Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the play the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers?

If that life was good enough for them, why wasnt it good enough for me? As I stood there in media on society, section five, staring out at the empty stadium, I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasnt a football player. I was a bench warmer nothing more. Critical Studies. Thats when the team janitor found me standing there. Hey, he said. Dont you have to be at of social practice? Not anymore, I said, annoyed. I quit. Whyd you quit? You dont seem like the quitting type. I dont know, I said. I just dont see the the play, point anymore.

In that moment, the janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from of social media, Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, In this lifetime, you dont have to prove nothin to nobody except yourself. He had a point. I had already proven myself to of the, everyone except for me.

If I didnt believe in myself who would ever believe in me? Thanks to the janitors wisdom, I eventually played my firstand onlygame that season, and I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Okay, now lets pick this thing apart. The Impact Media On Society. In the who wrote the play, following section, Ive highlighted certain concepts from my sample narrative essay in different colors. The Impact. Their explanations follow.

A janitor changed my life. I was at a low point, ready to quit everythingeven when I had it all. The Play Othello. I didnt realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. The Impact. But, that didnt stop me from believing that I could play for legal studies Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. Lets break it down. Start with a strong hook . Just as with any other form of writing, your first paragraph should start with a strong hook. The sentence, a janitor changed my life , sets up the story with a bold statement meant to capture the attention of my readers. The goal is to the impact media on society, make readers ask, How did a janitor change your life?

What happened?For more information on hook sentences, read my blog post, How to Write Good HookSentences. Set the scene . In this section of savannah papers my first paragraph, I set the scene. The Impact Of Social Media. I give the critical studies, reader some context for my story (I was at a low point. I was a struggling football player for Notre Dame etc.). The Impact Of Social Media. Define the purpose . Have you ever heard anyone talk on and on about something without making a point? This is a common trap for writers attempting a narrative essay. A good narrative essay has a purpose: perhaps you learned a hard lesson, or perhaps you transformed into The that Thalassemia Essay, a more mature person. Whatever the case, that purpose should be stated in the first paragraph. In the media on society, example narrative, my purpose is to make the university of manchester pharmacy, point that the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself . As you can see, the the impact of social media, first paragraph is critical to setting up a good story. Now, lets talk about what goes on of the, in your body paragraphs. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out of social media on society that I hadnt made the dress list for our kickoff game.

After fighting to be on the team and sweating through every practice , I was going to savannah papers, sit on the benchagain. So, I decided to the impact of social media on society, call it quits. Savannah Papers. Who was I to of social media, think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasnt it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium , I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on The, the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid.

I wasnt a football player. I was a bench warmer nothing more. Thats when the the impact, team janitor found me standing there. Hey, he said. Dont you have to be at practice? Not anymore, I said, annoyed . I quit. Whyd you quit? You dont seem like the quitting type. I dont know, I said. I just dont see the point anymore .

In that moment, the savannah papers, janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the the impact media on society, team for legal two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, In this lifetime, you dont have to prove nothin to nobody except yourself. Lets break it down. Use vivid and appropriate detail . The Impact. The goal here is to recreate the story for your reader just like it happened. Make the the play, story vivid and full of detail.

Note, however, that this is not a descriptive essay, so only include the details that matter most to your story . Use dialogue . The Impact On Society. Sometimes, a great story cant be told without dialogue. Its definitely okay to incorporate dialogue, as necessary, especially if its a natural part of your story.In my sample essay, the conversation with the The Power of the Tea Essay, janitor is critical to the story, so including the dialogue from this interaction is appropriate. On Society. Write chronologically . Its a smart idea to write in chronological order, especially if you are an inexperienced writer. What happened first, next, and last?This will help you to savannah papers, stay true to your story and the impact not wander. In this sample, I focus on the sequence of events that led me to my moment of university of manchester truth, how the janitor talked me into staying on the team, and how this changed my perspective on of social media, life. Maintain consistency in narration . In this example narrative essay, I chose to write in did the celts, the first-person narrative voice and in the past tense.I chose first person because I was telling a story that happened to the impact of social media, me (remember, Im pretending to be Rudy in this sample). I chose past tense because Im telling a story that happened in university of manchester pharmacy, the past .Chances are, youll want to write your narrative essay in first person, past tense, too. The Impact Media On Society. In some cases, you may find that writing in third person is The Power of the, a better choiceespecially if you are recounting a story that happened to the impact, someone else. But, whatever you choose, keep it consistent throughout.

Okay! Lets move on to the last paragraph. He had a point. I had already proven myself to Mutations that Thalassemia Essay, everyone except for me. Of Social On Society. If I didnt believe in myself who would ever believe in me? Thanks to savannah papers, the janitors wisdom, I eventually played my firstand onlygame that season, and I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to . Lets break it down. Restate your purpose . In your final paragraph, leave your reader with a clear restatement of your purpose.Remember, I began this sample narrative essay by the impact media, stating my purpose: The most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. In the final paragraph, I closed with a restatement of this same point: I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Savannah Papers. Here are the eight concepts we just covered, distilled into the impact of social, handy table form for your convenience. Final Thoughts on How to Write a Narrative Essay.

As you set out to write your narrative essay, bring the readers on your journey with you. Give them a reason to listen to your story. If youre uncertain what to write about, remember that a good personal narrative essay will show some sort of transformation. For example, you started out as a shy person, but had an interesting experience that made you more outgoing. Mutations That. Find a story of transformation, and then write about the impact, what happened. If you need more ideas, check out these example narrative essays.

Finally, always be sure to edit your personal narrative essay before you submit it! It doesnt matter how awesome your story is if the narrative is masked by bad grammar or sentence structure errors. Psst. 98% of the play othello Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over the impact media 500,000 example essays. About the The Power of the Tea Essay, Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd.

Wooooow, thnx this really saved my day cause I had no idea of the impact of social media on society how to write a narrative essay. Happy to help and thanks for the play reading! Youre welcome! Thanks for reading. Hey anyone wants to learn the best way to write an essay without tutoring. here it it. this stuff is as good as perfect to media on society, learn an essay.

+Naomi Tepper thanks a ton.. this will help me improve my narrative writing skills.. Thanks again #128578; Aww, shucks thank you! More than happy to help. Thank you I really appreciate your help. Critical Legal Studies. n if you dont mind, is it possible that you could help me out with a few links or something, so i could improve my writing skills. Of Social Media On Society. (other types of writings as well- like argumentative, descriptive, persuasive, summary writing) oh! n am also having my IGCSE pre-boards coming up this Monday so even a few tips would also help. Thanks:) Truthfully, I dont know much about the IGCSE boards, but I imagine there might be some timed writing tests involved, in which case this post might come in handy: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ Thanks alot all of them are really helpful #128578;

Can you please guide me to another link with summary writing.. i think the above link doesnt seem to be working.. Thanks in advance. Savannah Papers. #128578; Hi Naomi. Found this really helpful, thank you. The Impact Of Social On Society. I was wondering if you have any additional advice that would help me hone my writing skills. #128578; Hi again, Sowmya! Woot!

Looks like your finding your way around our blog. Nice to savannah papers, see you reading this post as well. Yes, I have lots of advice on writing better essays. Check out the comment I left for Joshua (below), it links to some of my most useful blog posts. Is it possible if you could share a link on summary writing to media, me, it would be of where celts originate great help. Thanks in advance. thank for the awesome help. You are so welcome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH . YOU HELPED ME A LOT ! Awesome! Happy to of social, help. #128578;

I want to help my son write a narrative. He has to choose to studies, be something from our timeline of study with our coop. He has chosen the Black Death. The Impact Media On Society. This seems so exciting to me but I simply cannot wrap my head around how to approach this as a narrative. He actually wants to BE the who wrote, black death. Ideas? Wow! Your son sounds very creative. I love this concept. Your son should choose the characteristics of the Black Death that he wants to personify. Before writing, answer some questions: Whats his motive (as the of social on society, Black Death)?

How does he feel about the work he is doing? Does he have a visible form or is of manchester, he invisible? If visible, how do humans see him? Try to keep the of social media, personification consistent throughout. Mutations Cause. Then build a narrative arc around this character with a beginning, middle and end. Perhaps tell the story of visiting on a particular family. What does he learn from the experience? What is the point (thesis)?

Most importantly have fun! I love this! Do you have an example with a guide just like the one you did for narrative essay but for on society an illustration essay? Thanks so much Erin! Sorry to ask again, but do you have examples for who wrote a research essay and another narrative without dialogue?

I want to be able to show my college students different examples of narrative essays.