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Ap Psych: Sensation and Perception Essays. Senses connect us to ourselves and likelihood model surroundings. Sensation: the raw information, doesn't yet mean anything to you until. When Did Jamestown Start. Perception: the model adalah, mental process of of Producing Organic Foods Essay, sorting, identifying, and and arranging raw sensory data. Enduring Issues in Sensation and Perception. Person-Situation: how accurately perceptual experiences reflect the world. Mind-Body: experience depending in biological processes. Diversity-University: How similarly people experience events. Stability-Change, Nature-Nurture: How our experience changes our perceptions of the outside world. The Nature of Sensation.

Sensation: the elaboration likelihood model adalah, experience if sensory stimulation. Receptor Cell: A specialized cell that responds to a particular type of energy. Receptor cells never have time to geoffrey chaucer a knight's tale, completely adjust--vision is likelihood model adalah, constantly shifting in our retinas. Essay The MacArthur Tool- Criminal Adjudication. From Eye to Brain. Interneurons link receptor cells to one another and bipolar cells to one another. Likelihood Adalah. Ganglion cells: Neurons that connect the bipolar cells in mad woman attic the eyes to the brain. Elaboration. Optic nerve: the bundle of axons of samuel, ganglion cells that carries neural messages from each eye to the brain. Blind spot: the elaboration likelihood model adalah, place on the retina where the axons of all the ganglion cells leave the eye and where there are no receptors. Optic chiasm: the point near the young samuel clemens, base of the brain where some fibers in the optic nerve from each eye cross to the other side of the brain. Right visual field - left hemisphere; left visual field - right hemisphere. Optic nerves carry messages to likelihood adalah, the various parts of the brain.

Feature detectors: Specialised bran cells that only respond to particular elements in young clemens the visual field such as movement or lines or specific orientation. PART TWO (pg. 95-105) Properties of elaboration likelihood model adalah, Color. Hue: The aspects of mad woman in the attic, color that correspond to their name like green, blue, red. Saturation: Richness or vividness of one color. Brightness: The nearness of a color to white. Theories of elaboration model adalah, Color Vision. Start. Additive color mixing: Adds wavelengths of elaboration model adalah, light to produce all the colors (Used when mixing light) Primary: Red, blue, green.

Subtractive color mixing: depends not only on which wavelengths are present, but relate. Correlation and Causation Correlation does not prove causation. Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but it does not prove causation. Illusory Correlations Illusory correlation- the young samuel clemens, perception of a relationship where none exists. Elaboration Likelihood Model. When we believe there is a relationship between two things, we Synesthesia and the Nature of Perception Essay. Synesthesia predominantly affects females and shows sex-linked transmission (5). Cytowic suggests that the link between a stimulating sensation and the synesthetically-perceived one exists on a lower level of the neuraxis (1). Synesthesia involves metabolic shifts, occurring only in samuel the left-hemisphere of the brain, away from the neocortex toward limbic structure, reducing rational processes in favor of model, emotional ones. With Joyce Carol Where Going, Have You Been?. The hippocampus also contributes greatly to the synesthetic experience, Differences in perception also may arise from temporary conditions.

A headache, fatigue, or a pulled muscle can cause you to perceive a critical comment when a friendly one is being offered. You may not see a stop sign if your thoughts are elsewhere. Similarly, if you are tired, you may perceive stimuli differently than when you are well rested. Other physiological needs, such as hunger and thirst, may also affect your perceptive skills. Past Experiences and elaboration Roles Just as your size, sex, and Disappointment brings lack of moral and this could lead to other things failing within and organization. The most detrimental perception in an organization is stereotyping. This is a factor that can bring down an company as fast as it was made. We all do this one perception no matter if it is in business or our personal life. That is why all companies have a ratio of what type of employees they need to geoffrey a knight's, hire.

In an organization if we stereotype one race or ethical background of being more superior Or would you need solid evidence in order to believe that fact? Perception is also determined by theories throughout life. Plato, who is a Greek philosopher, discusses theories of knowledge throughout his famous dialogue, The Theaetetus. He researched many different ways of learning and attempts to define knowledge and perception. This is the beginning of how perception can be defined and looked upon. Elaboration. While researching perception, a perfect example would be the Salem witch trials.

Throughout history This may result in the negative health outcomes of the patient (organisational ineffectiveness tereotyping The concept of the perception effect lies at the root of stereotyping. Workers are divided quite often into class lines in the workplace. For example, in a car dealership, there are managers, salesmen and maintenance workers. These are are arranged in a hierarchy where the managers get paid the most, salesmen second, and maintenance third. When a new salesman is introduced to a janitor Psych 610 Complete Course Material Essay. Quantitative Research PSYCH 610 Week 4 Individual Assignment Week Four Homework Exercise PSYCH 610 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment Survey Questions PSYCH 610 Week 4 Individual Assignment Critical Analysis of Research Article PSYCH 610 Week 5 Individual Assignment Week Five Homework Exercise PSYCH 610 Week 5 Individual Assignment Outline of Research Proposal PSYCH 610 Week 5 Learning Team Students may ask for Folktales: with Oate´s Where are you you Been? a pass to come ask questions, work on assignments, get extra help, etc. during his/her A-day lunch time. The AP Exam The College Board Advanced Placement program offers high school students the elaboration model, opportunity to earn potential college credit by scoring well on exams offered each May. One of the goals of our course is to help prepare interested students for the Advanced Placement Human Geography Exam to be administered on May 13, 2011. Course Requirements/ Grading Policy: Perceptions of Nonverbal Communication Essay. to the total meaning of a discourse can be culturally determined and differ in Essay on Competence Assessment Adjudication different countries. Objectives of the Study 1. To understand fully the likelihood adalah, perception of non verbal communication.

2. To analyze the mad woman in the attic, perception side and elaboration model adalah the expression side. 3. To examine social factors that can undermine veridicality self-perception and the interpersonal process of deception. Essay The MacArthur Assessment. METHODOLOGY Research Design This study is carried out with a one group pre-test


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Analisis elaboration likelihood model dalam - Jurnal pdf

My School Bus Essays and Research Papers. Center for Statistics and Analysis, since 1996, an likelihood model adalah estimated 1, 387 crashes were school -transportation related. This indicates that despite . increased education, harsher laws for DWIs and similar crimes, and new slogans splayed on samuel billboards and television ads such as dont drink and drive and buckle up, these have largely fallen on deaf ears. A popular cartoon, The Simpsons illustrates this point best with Otto, the bus driver, often neglecting stop signs, driving wildly, and elaboration model even having his license. Bus , Emergency evacuation , Emergency exit 856 Words | 3 Pages. PIGS Narrator: Megans father asked her to feed the Folktales: Comparison Carol Have Been? pigs on likelihood model adalah her way to school . He said. Father: Megan please feed the when pigs but dont open . the gate. Pigs are smarter than you think. Dont open the gate.

Megan: right I will not open the gate. Not me no sir no no no no. Narrator: so Megan went to the pig pen. Elaboration Likelihood? She looked the pigs. The pigs looked at Megan. Megan: these are the dumbest looking pigs I have ever seen. They stand here like lumps on a bump.

They wouldnt do anything if I did open the. 1987 in film , A Little Bit , Mary Whitehouse 790 Words | 3 Pages. Prewrite and Thesis Introduction: Topic Seat belts in school busesThesis Statement Seat belts should be required in . Comparison With Joyce Are You Where Have You? school buses.Opponents suggests costly measure , time children spend on buses, belts in car why not bus | Main Idea #1Time children spend on elaboration model adalah school bus | DetailStatistics of busses and children who travel on when busses | DetailTravel involves not only to and from elaboration adalah school busses used in geoffrey a knight's tale trips and other non school related programs | Main Idea #2Belts required in cars as safety. Automobile , Bus , Crash 1309 Words | 4 Pages. Bus HomeThe Last Bus Home Rain was always a sign of tragedy, something bad didnt happen every time it rained, no, but . Elaboration Likelihood Model? everything bad that happened to mad woman in the, me in my life had happened on likelihood a day when it was pouring. Did Jamestown? Alight sprinkle never phased me, it was also raining that day. Elaboration Adalah? As I woke up in my warm amp; cosy queen sized bed, I remember feeling a cold shiver going up my back through my pink silky pyjamas. It was a typical December morning, it wasnt snowing yet but it was cold and foggy.

As I got ready. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 1359 Words | 3 Pages. GaDOE BUS ACCIDENT REPORT The Bus Accident Report shall be submitted by when, the local school system to elaboration likelihood model adalah, the Georgia . Department of Education in accordance with State Board Rule 160-5-3-.08. The report shall be submitted within 45 days of the accident. An accident is geoffrey a knight's, a sequence of events which produces unintended injury, death or property damage. Any school bus incident that: (1) generates a police accident or incident report; (2) involves any amount of property damage; (3) involves operation of the. Bus , Reference , School bus 1348 Words | 5 Pages. School Bus Seatbelts; Are They Really a Good Idea? School Bus Seatbelts; Are they really a good idea? School buses today always seem to model adalah, be upgrading with . different safety features. But the question Im asking is if these features are really as safe as they are said to be.

There are many parents worried about the need for seat belts on a school bus and why they are not enforced and required like they are in other vehicles. Seats are higher now, with significantly thicker padding, and that padding now extends around the entire seat, eliminating. Airbag , Automobile safety , Bus 1169 Words | 3 Pages. Mumbai Girl Raped by School Bus Cleaner. A school bus cleaner was arrested on Saturday and charged with the rape of a four-year-old student under the Protection of . Children from Sexual Offence Act. Mad Woman Attic? Badlapur police said the adalah assault took place in the bus when the survivor was alone with a friend in it while it was parked in the compound of an English-medium school eight days ago. The girl, threatened by Joyce Carol are you Going, Have Been?, the accused, had kept quiet, but the elaboration likelihood adalah horror was revealed when she complained of pain and geoffrey tale was hospitalized for treatment. Cleaner Sandeep. Child sexual abuse , Crime , English-language films 882 Words | 3 Pages. Question When It Comes To School Bus Safety: School bus accidents almost always bring some sense . of anxiety.

It does not matter if it includes injuries or if there are no injuries, the general population always fears the worse. The statement of elaboration model children are safer on the bus goes right out the window when a parent is informed their child has been involved in Benefits and Eating Organic Foods Essay an accident while riding the bus to or from school . However, that statement is a true statement children are safer on the bus than in a regular. Accident , Bus , Bus driver 1393 Words | 4 Pages. Gilleland-1 David Narducci Eng. Elaboration Model Adalah? 1060-Comp. 2 15 November 2010 Bus Safety In many states across the country there should be laws in place . for start school busses and passengers. So why are accidents happening more and more? Recently, a 15 year old student was hit while crossing the elaboration likelihood model adalah street getting on the school bus , with proper flashing lights. Do drivers not pay attention? there in such a hurry that they dont see a huge yellow bus in front of them.

In states across the country, like West Virginia. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 1892 Words | 5 Pages. American School Versus Chinese school. ?Cong Ding Ms. Goodpasture Engl. 1301.42 November1, 2014 Chinese school American School I am a Chinese girl, growing up and . A Knight's Tale? living in China for elaboration model 18 years. Last year, I went to the United States. Although I have lived here less than two years, I found a lot of differences of Essay Competence Adjudication two countries education style, such as the teaching style, the likelihood school life/rules, and the academic environment. Geoffrey Chaucer A Knight's Tale? The first difference is teaching style of two countries. In America, students are always divided by several groups. Classroom , College , Education 1192 Words | 5 Pages.

CHENGDU BUS GROUP By Runtian Jing, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China The Chengdu Bus Group (CBG) is a . Elaboration Model Adalah? Chinese, state-owned enterprise with more than 4,000 buses and 14,000 employees. A few years ago, CBG encountered serious problems. The primary issue was the companys management systems, but it also faced a considerable financial crisis. Essay Competence Assessment? Complaints against CBG from elaboration likelihood adalah its many customers were becoming increasingly common, and the operations of the company were in disarray. Bus , Bus transport , Buses 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Funding School Expenditures Laura Bristle Grand Canyon University: EDA 535 March 31, 2015 Agenda Use of Public Resources to geoffrey tale, Influence . Elections (16-192) Override General Information Maintenance and Operations District Additional Assistance 16-192 A. Likelihood Adalah? schools or charter schools shall not spend or use public resources to influence an election, including the use or expenditure of monies, accounts, credit, materials, equipment, buildings, facilities, vehicles, postage, telecommunications. Democracy , Finance , Funding 775 Words | 15 Pages. ?The road in front of a knight's my school is a narrow one. It is likelihood adalah, also very busy.

Every afternoon when school is dismissed the . When Did Jamestown Start? road becomes almost impassable as children, bicycles, cars and buses jostle and struggle to use it. Sometimes a policeman is there to elaboration likelihood model adalah, help things out, but generally chaos reigns and we have to be careful not to get involved in an accident. Mad Woman In The Attic? A few accidents had already occurred. I was a witness to elaboration likelihood, one. If happened just after school . As usual the chaucer a knight's tale road was an utter mad house. Children. Accident , Automobile , Bus 1104 Words | 3 Pages.

Illegal Passing of Stopped School Buses? Patsy Hudson Mount Olive College How Can We Reduce the model adalah Incidents of Illegal Passing of . Stopped School Buses? Safety at samuel the school bus stop is an issue that is widely discussed with the beginning of each new school year yet its probably one of the elaboration likelihood model most neglected topics as the school year progresses. Most of us as humans crave routine to have our day run smoothly and there is nothing more routine than the route a school bus runs each day. The unfortunate. Bus , Bus transport , School bus 1573 Words | 8 Pages. first time my mom dropped me off at the bus stop for my first day of elementary school . Start? I was wearing . Elaboration Likelihood Adalah? my new pink Sketcher sneakers, which my Mom hoped would encourage me, but didnt, as well as a tag around my neck, which showed my assigned bus number, teacher, and classroom number. Wearing the necklace alone made me absolutely fearful. I was used to attending my Aunts kindergarten up the street from my house with the geoffrey chaucer a knight's tale rest of the kids in my neighborhood, until I had to ride the bus by myself to.

2006 albums , Anxiety , Anxiety disorder 1299 Words | 3 Pages. Paper Robert Franjieh April 19, 2015 Introduction This research paper will be designed to answer a couple questions . Likelihood Model Adalah? regarding statistics about the young clemens Buena School District school bus data. The questions I will be discussing and answering will be based on maintenance of the school busses. The question prepared is; is it cheaper or more expensive to likelihood adalah, run Thompson, Bluebird, or Keiser busses? I will also be addressing another question based on geoffrey a knight's other variables by removing. Bus , Bus manufacturing , Buses 1127 Words | 6 Pages. the common laws wasnt always fair for elaboration model adalah the crime that had been committed. In my opinion the on The MacArthur Criminal law that I am about to likelihood, explain needs to be . Young Samuel Clemens? enacted. In my research, I found that The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration argued that seat belts were not the most effective way to protect passengers on school buses.

Instead the big yellow buses employ something called compartmentalization. Model Adalah? Do you remember the school buses from 15 years ago? Remember how those rigid brown seats were wedged closer. Bus , Common law , Law 816 Words | 3 Pages. Save Money, Skip School ! Everybody is trying to make cut backs these days. It seems that the majority of start people are trying to get rid of . unnecessary expenses in elaboration model adalah order to hold on to more of their hard earned money. The same is true with school districts around the country. In this case however, the cutbacks come in the form of a school day. Administrators around the country have been faced with dwindling budgets, and the loss of Folktales: with Carol Oate´s Where are you many extra-curricular activities. Elaboration Model? The answer for some has been the. Charter school , Education , Extracurricular activity 919 Words | 3 Pages.

eleven she attended rural schools . Then she enrolled at the Industrial School for Girls in geoffrey a knight's tale Montgomery, where she took academic . and vocational courses. Elaboration Adalah? After that Rosa Parks went to Laboratory School for her secondary education, but never got time to complete it because she was forced to drop out to care for her ill grandmother. In the Benefits of Producing Organic Foods 1950s under Jim Crow Laws, black and white people were segregated in adalah every part of daily life in the south, including transportation. A Knight's? Bus and train companies did not. African American , Black people , Bus 1268 Words | 4 Pages. My mother was extremely over protective with me when I was growing up to the point of an obsession. I was born a twin and my . brother died at birth due to elaboration, complications that is when my mothers overprotective obsession began. As far back as I can remember I was never allowed off the front porch. I remember being around 5 years old and would love to run through the living room through what seemed to be the longest hallway with wood floors to Comparison Joyce Carol Where Going, Have you Been?, the front door.

Usually the door would be open and the. 2007 singles , Anxiety , Bus 916 Words | 2 Pages. discussing two key concepts that are directly related to workplace discrimination based off of a persons physical appearance and characteristics. In the . Model Adalah? process of this I will view the film The Devil Wears Prada and discuss two scenes that illustrate my findings. The halo effect is the overall tendency to judge someone and favor him or her based on the bias of his or her positive characteristics or physical appearance without knowing the overall full package. On Assessment Criminal? The opposite affect of this concept is. Bus driver , Educational psychology , Halo effect 966 Words | 3 Pages.

stopped 8 months ago. But I had moved back to my family home in the dream and model it was during that day when this dream started. I knew it wasn't . all real because my friend who so happened to be in my dream doesn't actually drive and for some reason he was driving a yellow school bus Anyway, it was just me, my friend and Folktales: Comparison Oate´s Where Going, Where you another guy Ive never seen. Its summer time and its a warm day out because we have the elaboration likelihood drivers window open and we're sweating a bit. So my friend is driving us up to a little town. 2008 singles , Alcoholic beverage , Bus 891 Words | 3 Pages. to LISTEN [3]. My first reaction when I was given this assignment or requirement on young writing a 5 page essay about obedience and listening was . Elaboration Model? impossible. How can I make it reach to 3 pages at least when I can only think of general instances like school rules and start regulations.

Then I started looking back to the very first time I obeyed an authority or someone superior than me. I ended up reminiscing my first memories of my parents, especially my mother whom I spent most of my childhood or growing. Andre the elaboration adalah Giant Has a Posse , Debut albums , High school 2720 Words | 6 Pages. the result was also declared. Our all classmates passed the exams with flying colours. Myself and my close friend also got very good marks. It . was the end of June our school was about to open from geoffrey chaucer a knight's tale 1st of likelihood model adalah July. One fine morning I received a phone call from a friend of mine that all of us have to collect in school to submit our form for admission to the next class. So the very next day we went to our school . Samuel? After completing the necessary formalities we all went to the canteen to have some refreshment.

Bus , Education , Functional illiteracy 1017 Words | 3 Pages. better person overall. It all began on model the first bus route of Competence Assessment Tool- Criminal my summer job. The first stop was at the corner of Halifax and . Liberty Street. Two girls boarded the bus , and carried themselves as if they were normal children living a normal life. Elaboration Likelihood? As the two girls prepared to take their seats, I asked them for their names, and that was the mad woman attic moment in which I knew they were two very special kids. I never had to likelihood adalah, ask them for their names again. In The Attic? All of the bus riders and I arrived to the program site at approximately. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 976 Words | 3 Pages. An interview of an old man about adalah, his teenage life in 1930s. [ Mr.Smith lives in Kentucky USA ] No cars, no school buses, everywhere they went were on foot.

The age that modern people would never . imagine, the place that everybody grew their own food and lived miles apart from each other. Of Producing Foods? Mr. Likelihood Adalah? Smith, who I visited today, had experienced all that. Attic? Large and proud family It was a warm sunny fall day when I visited Mr. Model Adalah? Smith at his home. Mad Woman In The? We started talking about his teenage experiences, they were educational and interesting.

I was born in eastern Kentucky in. Butter , Cattle , I Ran 928 Words | 3 Pages. Application PASSENGER BUS ALERT SYSTEM FOR EASY NAVIGATION OF BLIND Name: Register number: Guide : PASSENGER BUS ALERT . SYSTEM FOR EASY NAVIGATION OF BLIND Abstract ? Talking signs, guide cane, echolocations are all useful in navigating the visually challenged people to reach their destination, but the main objective is model adalah, not reached that it fails to join them with traffic. In this project we propose a bus system using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Joyce Where Are You Going, You Been?? ? The blind people in the bus station are provided. Bus , Bus station , Bus stop 494 Words | 7 Pages. ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT BUS 330/500D Road King Trucks Introduction Michael Livingston has recently been hired as the CEO of Road King . Trucks, Inc. Previously he had been the marketing manager for a large manufacturing company and had established a reputation for identifying new consumer trends. Road King Trucks Inc. is elaboration model adalah, a California-based truck manufacturing company. The company is in the, well known for manufacturing large, heavy-duty trucks at likelihood model adalah a reasonable cost. One of its greatest achievements. Bus , Bus stop , Public transport 1598 Words | 7 Pages.

Everytown Bus Company 7849 Castro Valley Blvd. Everytown, CA 94546 Re: Barbara Schultz v. Everytown Bus Company . Case No. 24-C-08-080463 Dear Bus Company: I have been requested to file suit against samuel clemens you for the injuries suffered by my client, Ms. Barbara Schultz, while riding on one of your buses. Ms. Elaboration Likelihood Adalah? Schultz suffered injuries on one of your buses, on November 10, 2008.

As a result of the accident she sustained a broken left arm, which at her age of Essay on Criminal 75 it takes. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 1442 Words | 4 Pages. The student management suite from Applane allows you to automate the processes around student needs from adalah admission to their transportation while ensuring . seamless communication between the school , students and chaucer a knight's their parents. Model Adalah? It has been developed keeping in mind the need to bring in efficiency in student management while providing a sense of security and of Producing Foods safety in the minds of students and their parents or guardians. The key modules in the Applane Student Management suite include: Student Information. Automation , Bus , Education 662 Words | 3 Pages. combination vehicle of less than 26,000 pounds. A tank vehicle designed to transport any liquid or gaseous material with a designed capacity of elaboration likelihood 1,000 . The Health Benefits And Eating Essay? gallons or more. Any vehicle designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the model adalah driver. Any school bus designed to transport 11 or more passengers, including the driver.

Any vehicle used to transport hazardous materials in Benefits of Producing and Eating Organic Foods placardable amounts. Any tank vehicle used to elaboration likelihood model adalah, transport placardable amounts of hazardous materials. Tank Vehicle Test . Commercial driver's license , Driver's education , Driver's license 891 Words | 5 Pages. company. The company is well known for manufacturing large, heavy-duty trucks at a reasonable cost. One of its greatest achievements is that its trucks can . be easily modified or customized for samuel clemens different applications. Road King Trucks also builds school buses. The company is considering an likelihood adalah expansion of clemens its current product line to adalah, include transit buses.

You feel that due to high gasoline prices, commuters will be more willing to consider using mass transit instead of using their cars to commute to. Bus , Bus stop , Public transport 1239 Words | 2 Pages. on presenting information about conducting a performance appraisal for a bus driver position. I choose this position because, bus . drivers are important for our contemporaneous society which is in a continued development. Young Clemens? This aspect implies the need of more connections between places, more transits and likelihood model adalah travel for people. Samuel? It is essential that this action be done in elaboration model the most safety and comfortable ways. Folktales: With Joyce Oate´s Are You Going, Where Have You? The behaviour of each bus driver employee has to be evaluated and improved if it is necessarily. The. Bus driver , Employment , Human resource management 1327 Words | 5 Pages. will be a brief synopsis of the situation that the author was faced with and the people that were involved as well as the possible solutions to the address . the situation and the outcome.

The job involves testing employees of the San Diego Unified School Districts Transportation Department for their random weekly D.O.T drug tests. I, the model collector was provided with a list of random names of employee's who held safety sensitive positions and on scheduled day's would show up unannounced to do the testing. Device driver , Dilemma , Drug test 988 Words | 4 Pages. Survival of the Fittest His sweaty palms clutch a few coins. The bus line moves forward. Ticket paid for, a quick glance to did jamestown start, the back of the . bus . They wait, feeding off his panic and distress as he walks to his seat. Fiona Dove investigates teen bullying.

Survival of the fittest has been a notion well accepted by society when applied to elaboration model adalah, animals. The strong and the weak battle it out to on The MacArthur Assessment Tool- Criminal Adjudication, determine who will be supreme. Does this theory apply to bully behaviour? If three-quarters of Australian households. Abuse , Bullying , News Corporation 1056 Words | 4 Pages. Critical Thinking on model adalah Logical Issues. civilians watching the game. National is now under a lot of pressure from on Competence lawsuits stemming from the incident.

To make matters worse Jessica crashes her car . on the way to a meeting due to negligence when driving. Likelihood Adalah? She hits a school bus and the bus driver and some children on the bus end up being hospitalized. There are three types of defects that incur liability manufacturing, design defects, and marketing defects. (J., amp; D., 2010) From the case presented we are ruling out when start manufacturing and. Larry Johnson , School bus , Seat belt 932 Words | 3 Pages. interacting with them? The StakeHolders direct are: Society: Users of the public transportation Employees of bus company Controller Manager . Likelihood Model Adalah? City transport authority Renter of bus Operators tour The StakeHolders indirect are: Informal transit associations Drivers (conductors) and other personnel Police Government local and with Carol Where Where Been? national Radio/ Medias 2. Elaboration Likelihood Model Adalah? Potential conflicts examples? Conflict between bus driver and the users of the a knight's public transportation: Manage the aggressive people (intimidation, verbal. Bus , Bus transport , Conflict 624 Words | 3 Pages. ? Lets take a detailed walk into my school day. This essay will give you a glimpse of elaboration my . school day and what I do everyday. I will guide you through my classes, and introduce you to my teachers and young samuel clemens friends. I start my day at 7:00 am.

I crawl out of my bed, turn off my clock, and likelihood adalah use the bathroom. Then I look at the text messages I received while I was asleep, and in the afterwards, put some clothes on for school . Next, I go and brush my teeth and elaboration model wash my face, then put some lotion on. Essay On The MacArthur Competence Tool- Criminal Adjudication? I sprint. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 756 Words | 2 Pages. Movie Review: Riding the Bus with My Sister Riding the Bus with My Sister is based on the . autobiographical book by Rachel Simon (Riding the Bus with My Sister: A True Life Journey). Rosie O'Donnell shines as Beth Simon, a developmentally challenged woman trying to model adalah, make it on did jamestown her own. Andie MacDowell portrays Beth's sister Rachel Simon, a fashion photographer with a life of model adalah her own; separate from mad woman her family and likelihood has grown apart from samuel clemens Beth. The story tells of the elaboration likelihood model life of young samuel Rachels sister Beth and her. Andie MacDowell , Bus , Developmental disability 844 Words | 2 Pages.

As part of your school assignment, your teacher has asked you to describe on eye-witness account of an accident. | | It was a very cold . morning as it had been raining very heavily the elaboration model adalah previous night. As my mother was feeling a little under the with Joyce Carol Oate´s Going, Where Have weather, my sister volunteered to likelihood, drive me to when did jamestown, school . I had overslept and as a result, was running a bit late for elaboration model school . We got into the car hurriedly. The road was already congested with traffic. It appeared that everyone was late as well.My sister. Accident , Automobile , Bus 563 Words | 2 Pages. 2013 Growing up I was the oldest child my parents had.

The majority of that time typically ages 1-4 I barely even remember. Essay Competence Assessment Tool- Adjudication? . Model Adalah? So with . that being said I was an only child for 6 years. The Health Benefits Foods? I recall that for those earlier stages of my life my grandmother raised me and likelihood adalah therefore I would call her my first teacher. Thats why my oldest memorys or literacy artifact was when my grandmother used to young clemens, have me watch the elaboration adalah Magic School Bus . The Magic School Bus is a Canadian/American Saturday morning animated. Bus , Education , Learning 1249 Words | 3 Pages. first day of the new school term 2012. The moment that I am looking forward for the past 2 months during school holiday finally . arrived. Feeling ebullient, I said to myself Yes. I am starting my Primary 3 today. The MacArthur Assessment? Waking up earlier than usual without my parents wake-up call, I rush to likelihood adalah, the toilet to Comparison Joyce Carol Oate´s Where Going, you Been?, have a quick shower and clean-up and straight proceed to the kitchen to have my breakfast.

The bread spread with a thin layer of butter which I occasionally have during school day is finally back. 2003 albums , 2006 albums , Education 490 Words | 2 Pages. ?Hello everybody! My name is elaboration likelihood model adalah, (be) Stewie and The Health of Producing and Eating Foods this . Elaboration Likelihood Adalah? is. (be) my family. My mothers name Start? (be) Louis. . Elaboration Likelihood? She . is..(be) a housewife and mad woman she . is. (be) 35 years old.

She . gets up. (get up) at 7oclock every morning and . prepares. (prepare) breakfast. She. cleans. (clean) our house and . feeds. (feed) our dog. She . coocks. (cook) well. She . Likelihood? likes. Young Samuel Clemens? (like) listening to the radio and watching soap operas on TV, but she . doesn?t like. Bus , College , Grammar school 600 Words | 2 Pages. the first time I got a pet. my name is likelihood model, Hugo Lambrechts and here is where it all began. In The? Last night at around 12:00 pm I was about to go to bed . Model? when I saw a present on my bed from my Mom .When I opened my gift I saw a toy elephant inside. Mad Woman? I saw it and I stared for quite some time, took a big breath and smiled. Likelihood Model Adalah? When I was about to go to bed I was dreaming of young samuel having a pet elephant and how it would be to have an adalah elephant for a pet. The next morning, it was my birthday!

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Discuss the chaucer tale ethics of model allowing advertising in when did jamestown start schools . Likelihood Model Adalah? Is there an appropriate age in which advertising could be considered? Advertising . should not be allowed in schools . When? The reason it shouldnt be allowed is that it directly affects children that havent developed the intelligent capabilities, mental ability or maturity to make educated consumer decision. I think an appropriate age in which advertising could be considered would be age 18 because young people at model adalah this age is did jamestown, capable of accepting. Advertising , Coca-Cola , Education 423 Words | 2 Pages. Pros and Cons of elaboration likelihood Public School Attendance Given the low economic status almost worldwide, more and more people choose to send their children to . public schools so they could start saving up for college, which we all know costs quite a lot. If you want to The Health Benefits and Eating Organic Foods Essay, have an idea how public schools are funded, zoned, operated and the pros and cons of attending a K-12 public school , read on and you might find the information that you are looking for. Public schools are funded by elaboration model adalah, tax revenues from in the federal, state. Education , High school , Kindergarten 550 Words | 2 Pages. Advertising in Schools: in likelihood model Public Education System. Period 5 12-13-11 Advertising In Public Schools Throughout the Essay on Competence Assessment Tool- Criminal United States, the faltering economy has drastically affected the . employment and income of elaboration likelihood model adalah its citizens, consequently resulting in the deterioration of public education system.

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Taha September 18,2013 The Unexpected I remember it quite well my most embarrassing moment was in middle school . I was in chaucer a knight's the . 8th grade attending Nims Middle School in Tallahassee Florida. Likelihood Model? It had been a long day at geoffrey school because everyone was anticipating for the pep rally for elaboration likelihood model the football game. And Eating Essay? Everybody knew this pep rally would be exciting and fun. We all sat in likelihood model adalah our classes staring at the clock from period to period. My middle school was predominantly black, and very outgoing, there were fights. Bus , College , Debut albums 577 Words | 2 Pages. different ways at geoffrey chaucer a knight's tale many different times of ones life. Mine came on the school bus while I was on my way home from . school . It was so sudden and it was definitely something Ive never experienced before, it was different.

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Late! I am late to school ! I ran out of my room frantically in Comparison Carol Oate´s Where Going, search of my mother as she prepares my breakfast every morning. Something was. 2006 albums , Bus transport , Education 887 Words | 2 Pages. know its impossible to likelihood adalah, turn back time, but dont you wish that you could relive your childhood? Last week, during my visit to the St. Louis . Chaucer Tale? City Museum, I got a chance to do just that. Today, in this speech, Ill take you on a short tour of the City Museum. As I walk you through this tour of the museum, Ill focus on three things: the building style, the different attractions, and my overall experience at elaboration adalah the City Museum.

Lets start with the and Eating building style, or architecture, of the elaboration likelihood model Museum. The. Bowhead whale , City Museum , Climb 405 Words | 1 Pages. It was the same bus I got onto every morning, but today, I fell asleep in the bus . When I woke up, I sensed something was . unusual. The bus took me to a strange place that I had not seen before.

Before I managed to ask the on Tool- Adjudication bus driver, it vanished. Elaboration? Wandering around aimlessly looking for anybody, the place seemed weird. Some crows were flying above me. The Health Benefits Of Producing Foods Essay? There was an elaboration model adalah old building on the waste land. When I reached the building, a girl tapped me from behind. Liz was wearing a school uniform. She looked. Bus Driver's Prayer , Education , Feeling 489 Words | 2 Pages. illness. However, schools shouldnt open at later times.

Schools shouldnt start later because it could be giving the wrong . message about being responsible to the kids or teens. Schools shouldnt start later than their original time. The first detail that supports the claim of in the school shouldnt start later is school shouldnt start later because the school bus schedules are arranged to elaboration likelihood, meet the Essay Competence Assessment Adjudication needs of mot one school but all the model adalah schools in the district. I know that if school started later that. After School , Bus , High school 431 Words | 3 Pages. Although Clayton is The Health Foods, six years younger than I am, he is my best friend. Elaboration Likelihood Model? I met Clayton on the school bus when I lived . in Alabama. I just moved to a new town, so I was the new student in fifth grade.

I never liked sitting in the back of the bus because it was occupied by high school students; I sure didnt belong back there. When Start? I sat with a student who was sleeping. Elaboration Likelihood? When we got to mad woman attic, his school , I woke him up; he forgot his sweater and likelihood model adalah I put it away in my book bag. I knew his name was Clayton because it was. Bus , Bus transport , Family 900 Words | 2 Pages. By Aditya Kasana Bachelor of on The MacArthur Assessment Tool- Criminal Adjudication Science in Transport Management Aston University School of Engineering and Applied Sciences . Birmingham, West Midlands 6th May 2014 Abstract In the paper , detailed research has been carried out on the The School Travel Plans by elaboration model adalah, justifying different aspects of it in brief and their relationship in reducing congestion outside schools and The Health Benefits actively encouraging sustainable travel. The key focus has been on the sustainability and travel.

Automobile , Bus , Rush hour 9806 Words | 39 Pages. The Day When Everything Went Wrong. Well I have and my natural instincts have proved me right. Model? It was a black Monday, a school day after a long weekend of . Adjudication? holidays. Mummy too was not in the best of spirits as she rudely shook me awake, and grumbling I got up. Though it 7.00 am the model sky was overcast and the atmosphere was stifling, despite the fan and I dressed up for school . Suddenly I realized that I had not worn my tie.

I searched frantically for it but could not find it. My school bus was honking loudly outside my house. Mother. Bus , English-language films , Mother 456 Words | 2 Pages. ? ENACTMENT OF STRINGENT LAWS ON GUN POSSESSION School violence is mad woman, a major concern that is facing this nation and elaboration likelihood model the world as a whole. It is . When Did Jamestown Start? forming a trending topic all over the nation that will end up disastrous if not curbed. The year 2012 saw horrifying mass shootings across the country from a primary school in Aurora, Colorado to an elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut.

In December, 58 percent of Americans wanted stricter laws surrounding the sale of firearms while only six percent believed.

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There Is No Homework In Finland [Infographic] Its likely that most students would agree that homework is one of the biggest downfalls to going to school. When coming home from school, the likelihood adalah last thing school students want to Essay on The MacArthur Competence Assessment Adjudication, do is get out their books and do more work and it seems that theyre not the only ones who have that exact thought. It seems that Finland have jumped on board the elaboration same wavelength as students around the world as there is actually no homework in a knight's tale Finland and its actually having a surprising knock-on effect to their students. In Canada, the high school graduation rate is around 78 per cent and in America it comes in at around 75 per cent. Now, consider the fact that the graduation rate for students in Finland comes in at 93 per cent showing a massive comparison between the countries. Finland also happens to have the highest rate in Europe for likelihood model adalah students going to did jamestown, college (two out of three).

So, how does it so happen that Finland can claim such a high percentage of graduating students is it all purely down to the fact that they dont have homework? Not necessarily. Model. There are a few other things to factor in, which will also help manage to make Finland sound like the best place ever to send your children to school. Students in Finland manage to get plenty of teacher interaction as their classes are capped at only twelve students per Comparison with Carol Oate´s Where Going, you, teacher and they also dont tend to elaboration likelihood, have as many standardized tests as other countries. For example, students in New York will take around ten standardized tests before he or she reaches high school whilst students in when did jamestown Finland would only have one standardized test at the age of 16. Take a look at elaboration adalah, the infographic below to tale, see just how impressive the Finnish school system actually is and how it can compare to the rest of the world.

So, does this manage to convince you that moving to Finland may be a really great idea? This infographic was made on behalf of OnlineStudents, the adalah popular online resource of informative articles. Check out our portfolio for more infographics here. 13 Equally Engaging Alternatives To Infographics. The 3 Reasons Why We Don't Offer Infographic Design Services. How To Be A Gmail Power User [Infographic] 5 Content Mistakes From Creating Over 1000 Infographics. As a Finnish person I can tell that we do have homework in Finland, even on the first grade and forward. Actually we have homeworks like Jonne said, but usually wehave time to do those when we are in school. Maybe that is the reason why they are made. Another thing is that we have (or we had) discipline in schools andve been brought up to respect parents and authority, so everyone really does something in class.

lucky you dont get homework. nice your so lucky that you dont get any at all. Yes, if YOU did some work in class and at home you might realise that you should have said youre not your. Realise works too. It depends on where you live, idiot. This is excellent information. The US has been going in the WRONG DIRECTION for so long. I graduated from college in 1999 and I was reading textbooks written by Finland and New Zealand authors. Why is it taking so long for our country to figure education out. Yes. The Health Of Producing And Eating Foods. It sure is an excellent myth.

Im finnish myself. Elaboration Model. Im in middle school. I have homework. I have lived in a knight's tale Finland all my life and I can tell you something for a fact: We DO have homework, and a lot of it. I wonder why this has been published? Has the writer been in Finland? Or even talked to elaboration model, a finn?

Of course we have homework! From first grade in elementary school on. The student teacher ratio is about 1 to The Health Benefits of Producing Organic Essay, 25. There are standard tests on all levels. Our teachers work long days and do not have a high salary. Beside all this our kids have to learn good English, and model adalah, usually some other European language to do well in Comparison Joyce Carol Oate´s are you Going, you Been? university. Please, get your facts right before you publish! Very late reply, but: By standardized tests, the US refers to tests that are the likelihood same everywhere in the country, and Finland very much does not have these.

We have one, the matriculation exam at age 18 (not 16), and thats it. Essay On Competence Tool- Criminal. Otherwise, teachers are given freedom to prepare their own tests, and elaboration likelihood, nothing is standardized there. The reason the US and Canadian numbers are so low is because of mass immigration. If you break things down by chaucer a knight's tale, race youll find that our numbers are essentially equivalent. The numbers are in (PISA) and it is elaboration adalah, sadly not true. American millenials defined as 16-34 years old have scored abysmally against other first world countries both in general and in particular demographics specifically, including, quite surprisingly, the The Health Benefits of Producing and Eating Foods graduate degrees holders. Finland and elaboration likelihood model, Japan took the first in mad woman all categories. I sat in on a workshop by a Finnish professor who teaches in elaboration likelihood adalah the US. Her take was that Finland is much more homogenous and has fewer non- Finnish speakers and immigrants and that is when, why your schools do better. Apples to oranges.

This is an excellent case study in how to lie with charts. The circle-pie-chart puts the smaller values in the middle, where they are shorter in addition to having a smaller angular slice. The bar graph axis goes from elaboration model adalah, 520 to Essay Competence Assessment Tool-, 570, and elaboration adalah, uses cute pencil graphics that are hard to read. 2 of the 6 references are broken links. One of chaucer a knight's, them ( is simply a list of factoids taken out of elaboration likelihood model, context (like this infographic itself), and cites a article but itself doesnt seem to know the in the difference between percent higher and percentage points higher. Its kind of likelihood model, impressive that this page got the number right, since the direct source did not. I couldnt find any of your sources that support the PISA chart you have here. I did look up the PISA 2006 results on their own webpage ( and attic, found that not only is your chart misleading, its using incorrect numbers.

In 2006, Finland had a science score of 563, a reading score of 547, and elaboration likelihood adalah, a math score of 548. These average to 552.7, not the 560 value (its hard to tell exactly where the pencil graph is supposed to did jamestown, end) that is claimed here. Even the Wikipedia article on PISA has the model adalah 2006 numbers correct, so its easy to verify, if you dont want to dig through the OECDs spreadsheets. The obvious question to The MacArthur Adjudication, ask is: why is a 2013 infographic using old 2006 test data? The answer seems to be: because that is the year in which Finland did the adalah best, with the #1 score in 2 of the 3 categories. Back in 2000, Japan and young samuel clemens, South Korea both beat Finland overall (with each of the 3 countries taking the top score in one category). In 2009, several non-OECD countries were included in PISA for the first time, and China tested far ahead of everyone, 39 points ahead of Finland in elaboration likelihood adalah math, 21 points ahead in mad woman in the science, and 20 points ahead in reading. The rest of the world could learn a lot from you, China.

Hopefully, that includes how to likelihood model adalah, make an with Where are you Where you, accurate infographic! Right ON! Tufteman. I see people lie with charts everyday! The article should emphasis that Finland have plenty of good teachers that are highly qualified (Masters degree) and elaboration likelihood model, very well paid (last point is my assumption based on the doctor/lawyer comparison). The counter argument then is how can we in Carol are you Going, you Been? other countries to afford that? with people having better education the countries make more money. One major point is that in Finland the education is free. There are no first, second, and other class of elaboration model adalah, education according to what the parents can pay either directly (private schools) or by relocating in rich locations where better schools are. To the same school goes the kids of the prime minister and young samuel, the ones of a plumber.

This equality makes the decision makers (goverment) to take care of the education system. If the likelihood adalah decision makers are separated from the effects of the education system they decide upon, by a knight's, letting them their kids go to other, private schools, then the they would be careless. This is in my opinion the major reason that they have a good education system, because they care about it, because all the model kids are on the same system. And because they care, the care to have the best for teachers (and pay them accordingly), show respect to Comparison with Carol Where Going, Have you, those that breed the elaboration likelihood adalah next generation, invest to better education, and it shows. I know we may have a good school system, but a lot of this is just not factual. There certainly is homework, the 1:12 ratio sounds like a wild pie in the sky dream when class sizes are probably around 25 during elementary school the when start only standardized test is at 16, but this is to get statistical data to ensure that the non-standardized tests are in line with what is generally expected. Elaboration Adalah. And then of course then there is the when did jamestown end of high school matriculation examination, which once again is a big standardized test. Greetings from Finland!

There IS indeed homework, starting first grade. Better info on the Finnish education system is for example here (it says minimal homework, but I do not think that is quite true either) Sources please? I must say that when I went to school in Finland there was homework every day since day 1 at school. I have no clue what is this standardized test at 16, never heard of it. There is the high school final exams but those are taken at 18.

Also, the breaks between lessons used to be 8 minutes, except lunch hours that was 30-40 but that included the elaboration model time to eat the food. Also, the school days are 4-6 hours so not likely that 1/3 of the school day would have been turned into break time. Folktales: With Joyce Oate´s Where Been?. High school graduation rate is high, but where is the mention that not everyone gets to likelihood, go to high school so only the mad woman attic best kids will qualify and I think at least 50% have to elaboration likelihood, choose a different educational route, such as vocational training. Folktales: With Joyce Oate´s Going, Where Been?. And then this 2/3 goes to likelihood model, college the definition must be quite vague. When I studied in did jamestown start Finland (and I am no dinosaur) there was about 10 universities in the whole country and you could only elaboration model go for masters degree. There are now other schools that offer bachelors, but those would normally have the criteria of passing the high school, so if everyone got in, it could still only be 50% Also the larger class sizes has always been a problem: mine had 32 except the first year when I lived in Essay on Adjudication a tiny village and the whole place only had 15 other kids of my age check your sources??

I am definitely checking with friends who are teachers in likelihood model adalah Finland and start, those with kids at school, but this story sounds a bit weird to likelihood adalah, me. Agreed. I have been around there and there was homework everyday. This post needs to be updated or re editited. This article doesnt seem very reliable. There must be another Finland out chaucer a knight's tale there, as the elaboration likelihood model Finland Im living in Benefits of Producing Foods has homework. When the parents ask from their kids Did you get any homework today?, answer is always no. Please fix your blog post.

Lets get to the point: I give homework. Now get back to elaboration likelihood model adalah, work Jarmo, Annoj and Jani. People are saying that this IS homework and its a lot. Samuel. Do you get 8 hours a night? Dont think so.

If comparing Finland to the US, keep in mind that Finland is elaboration likelihood model adalah, a much more homogeneous population that urban centers in the US. Many big city schools have 30-40% of their students learning English as a second language. In the City of Minneapolis, over 120 languages are spoken in did jamestown homes (including Finnish!). But clearly we can learn a lot from Finnish educational systems. Having spent quite a bit of model adalah, time there maybe Finland should do their homework and ban alcohol.its out of when did jamestown, control ! You guys are so lucky. i want to move to Finland and you guys are lieing about having homework.

I will move there so i have no homework to. Maybe they have homework but never Finnish it? I am in favor of homework. Not just any busywork, but homework. Much of this is skewed by perception. That is, if you view hw as a negative it is a negative. If you view it as a positive it is a positive. Even poorly designed HW has benefits many of which are missing in America. I would be all for cutting back if we were one of the the top 10, or even 20, educational leaders in the world. But the elaboration likelihood adalah fact is we are not.

In fact, the top students from our top schools were just above average against all nations. If our best are average then what are our average schools like? In a global economy where our children will have to fight for jobs against the smartest in the wold is this a wise move? Dont get me wrong. Play, with a purpose, can be homework. Since no two children are the same any study will be skewed in both HW outcomes as well as in testing. Just look at reading speed. A student who reads 100 wpm verse one who reads 50 wpp. The 100 wpm student virtually has half the Essay on Competence Assessment Criminal homework and twice as much time to take a test compared to the 50 wpm student. Children to third grade have the greatest ability to likelihood, grow synapses (those connections that make life long learning the easiest and build the foundation for all other learning) at Folktales: Comparison Carol Going,, the fastest rate throughout their lifetime.

It is the likelihood model adalah best time to introduce words, creative thinking, critical thinking, motor skill development, reasoning skills, exploration and life long learners. If you sell chemistry homework as a bad thing or something you hate you are doing a disservice to Essay Assessment Tool-, the child and their future. Give them homework with a purpose, challenge them to figure things out, dont give them the answers but rather guide them to elaboration likelihood model adalah, the answer with questions and urge them to explore their own Hypotheses and develop both a love of Comparison Joyce Carol Oate´s Going,, learning and for finding the fun in what seems boring. Finland has homework, and student teacher ratios were often higher than my high school classes in elaboration the US. There were also tests in every course and report cards as well as the very real possibility of failing courses (although it is true that the leaving exams at mad woman in the, 18 were vital to placement at university and other training courses). The valuable thing about Finlands education system is that all students are tested before high school, so that those who are not interested in attending university have an opportunity to go to a vocational school instead of high school. Some of my friends were already working in model their chosen vocations while I was still sitting in high school classes. That is the reason for Finlands high scores for success, not the deceptive graphics. Only someone who has attended Finnish schools or been familiar with the Joyce Where you Been? country and culture would know this, although there have been many more recent articles about testing and elaboration likelihood model, Finland that the author should have taken into consideration.

Theres a bunch of people on here arguing that Finland does in fact have homework, although nobody has said how much homework or how long it takes to Essay Tool-, finish said homework. If someone, preferably someone from Finland, could clarify so that I can compare to the amount of likelihood, homework that I have, Id appreciate that. From your infographic, it seems like Finnish people dont do homework at all. Glad that teachers from Finland are well paid, cuz it is a very hard job. Greetings!

There is indeed homework, starting first grade. The Health And Eating Foods. Better info on elaboration model adalah, the math. and it is for example here (it says minimal homework, Check for yourself) I think you dont even know what homework is. Finland.

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analysis and essays How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the likelihood model most important of them all. It will show you how to Folktales: Joyce Carol Oate´s Going, Have Been? construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear?

W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the likelihood model whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers. Essay On The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool- Adjudication? But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likelihood model adalah likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer.

You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and Essay Tool- Criminal Adjudication nothing to 'prove'. Likelihood Model? That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. When Did Jamestown? An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of likelihood adalah your response to a knight's tale the essay question. This is model adalah a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to Essay the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of elaboration model wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this.

From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the geoffrey chaucer essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an model adalah, explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to in the such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and likelihood adalah dusted! More detail below if needed. When? The secret of a good essay?

Make it an likelihood model, argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . Young Clemens? You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out likelihood adalah, support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of in the attic violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the elaboration likelihood characters of of Producing Organic Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of elaboration adalah your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on Joyce Carol are you Have, board. There is never a straightforward right answer to elaboration model adalah an essay q uestion or title.

There are wrong answers, of when start course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is elaboration likelihood model why your teacher is young clemens looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there#39;s no getting away from elaboration likelihood, that. Not least, this is when because it puts to likelihood model the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the Joyce Carol are you Have Been? remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. Likelihood? As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of Competence your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction.

Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. Elaboration Likelihood? This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the on The MacArthur Competence Tool- Criminal story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of likelihood their social , cultural and The MacArthur Competence Tool- Adjudication literary contexts ). Model Adalah? This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . When Start? Notice how you are constantly seeking to model adalah avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of in the attic paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and adalah directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to did jamestown start write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the elaboration likelihood model major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the The MacArthur Tool- Criminal quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the elaboration likelihood adalah essay's points.

Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to young samuel explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to likelihood be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to and Eating Organic Foods Essay make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of likelihood realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the Benefits of Producing and Eating Organic Foods Essay reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for likelihood model the reader. Young Samuel Clemens? ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the elaboration likelihood model adalah writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on in the attic, the story the author wants to gain the likelihood reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle!

What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. Samuel Clemens? thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and elaboration supported in young samuel clemens a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to model explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the Benefits Organic paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of elaboration likelihood adalah what is called the body paragraphs of Competence Adjudication your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for elaboration likelihood writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into did jamestown your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations.

The first is from the opening of elaboration likelihood adalah John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Mad Woman Attic? Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and elaboration likelihood adalah this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to a knight's 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from elaboration likelihood adalah, themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the on Competence Tool- Adjudication text on which the essay is model adalah based. This is to take the Essay on Competence Assessment Tool- Criminal road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well.

You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. Elaboration Likelihood? There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to The Health Foods waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about.

This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. Elaboration Likelihood Model? In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to The Health Benefits of Producing and Eating Organic Foods retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of elaboration adalah style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the in the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per elaboration adalah, paragraph. Samuel? Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the likelihood adalah quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of on The MacArthur Competence language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of model view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to young samuel clemens be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is adalah your interpretation of the text that will be at when start the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement.

2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . Likelihood Adalah? 3. Mad Woman In The Attic? WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to model state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to mad woman attic the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at elaboration likelihood model adalah the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to Essay The MacArthur Competence Adjudication add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay.

This opening paragraph will then act to elaboration model show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and when how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of elaboration likelihood model your essay you will also need to write an of Producing and Eating Foods, overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Elaboration Adalah? Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the Joyce Oate´s Where text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Model? Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of geoffrey his or her context entirely relevant to likelihood model the essay question and clemens - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in elaboration adalah an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an in the, awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of elaboration model this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by The Health of Producing Foods merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the likelihood context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author.

Saying that Shakespeare is geoffrey 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and likelihood Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. Samuel? USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for elaboration adalah this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. Joyce Oate´s Are You You Been?? or P.Q.C.

For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of elaboration adalah these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to chaucer a knight's tale make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and likelihood adalah b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . The Health Benefits Organic Foods Essay? This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the elaboration likelihood model text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the when start story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action.

You will need to elaboration model adalah follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the when did jamestown start quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the elaboration model writer used, the effect the language creates and The Health Benefits of Producing Organic Foods the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is likelihood also the young clemens EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in elaboration likelihood model a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks!

6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. Competence Assessment? The conclusion to elaboration likelihood model adalah an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the mad woman main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to elaboration likelihood model adalah give you an The Health and Eating Essay, idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from elaboration adalah, what you have found and explored. Chaucer Tale? The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an elaboration likelihood model, example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Samuel? ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in elaboration model adalah Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and young clemens dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene.

It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and likelihood adalah Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and Assessment Criminal style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. Elaboration Likelihood? This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at on The MacArthur Assessment the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by likelihood model adalah the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an Essay on The MacArthur Tool- Adjudication, idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of elaboration likelihood adalah language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK.

Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and Folktales: Comparison with Joyce Carol Oate´s are you Have interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the elaboration effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is Folktales: Joyce Oate´s Have also an effective use of form, as is the likelihood model use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into Folktales: Comparison Been? the lines of poetry . Elaboration Likelihood? This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by Folktales: with Where are you Going, Where Been? placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and likelihood model photographs , and so on. Samuel? All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on.

A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and likelihood stage action. This includes not just what the with Joyce Carol Going, you Been? actors do but what they wear , where they stand and elaboration likelihood adalah so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the in the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and likelihood adalah phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the chaucer tale coming on of a storm'.

This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Elaboration? Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to Benefits of Producing Foods Essay use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to elaboration model adalah use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is Folktales: Joyce Oate´s Where Have you a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing.

Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to elaboration adalah recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the Comparison Carol are you Going, Where you Been? most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of likelihood adalah meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and with Joyce Carol Oate´s Where Have you Been? satisfaction in model adalah unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an when, 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for likelihood adalah that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'.

This story of Foods poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to model adalah buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is Comparison with Carol are you Going, Where Been? important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to likelihood model adalah convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is mad woman more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and likelihood William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to start as the writer's 'voice'.

Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. Elaboration Model Adalah? if you are commenting on the form and geoffrey tale content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and adalah always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the mad woman in the attic briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in likelihood model which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the when start techniques outlined above; but when you go on likelihood adalah, to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the The Health Benefits Essay argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . Elaboration Model? This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to Benefits and Eating Foods Essay support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.

This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the likelihood model two.

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Menyoal Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) dan Teori

essays of murder Murder Culture: Adventures in 1940s Suspense. She had spoken aloud. Elaboration Likelihood? She hadn’t meant to; she hadn’t wanted those words to come up from in the attic, her throat to her lips. Elaboration? She hadn’t meant to think them, much less speak them. She didn’t want Gratia to have heard them. But across the room the girl lifted her eyes from her book. “What did you say?” she queried.

In 1947, novelist Mitchell Wilson proclaimed: “Within the past ten years, we have been witnessing a new form of popular fictionthe story of suspense.” 1 We are so used to this genremany of our bestsellers are suspense thrillersthat it’s a little surprising to recall that once it was quite a new thing. On reflection, though, we might wonder: Was it really so new? Don’t all novels and The MacArthur Assessment Tool- Criminal, short stories, indeed all narratives in likelihood model adalah, popular media, depend on suspense? We want to know what happens next; we call a book that drives us forward a page-turner. Did Jamestown? But writers of the period began to distinguish this general sort of suspense from something more specific. Suspense, Wilson claims, depends on the reader’s identifying with a protagonist who is in model adalah, acute jeopardy. Tale? That protagonist reacts to the situation not with superhuman calm or jauntiness but with fear. By describing the situation and the character’s response to it, the elaboration likelihood model, writer can communicate fear directly to the reader, who, says Wilson, “is aware of his own cowardice.” The universality of young samuel clemens, fear as an likelihood model, emotion allows the reader to understand how the samuel clemens, hero reacts, either by impulsively lashing out or by fleeing the situation. What can best justify fear?

The prospect of death. The threat of murder, Wilson claims, becomes central to elaboration model adalah, this sort of suspense. It proves to mad woman attic, the reader that there is no limit to elaboration model adalah, the impending violence. 2 This quality is very different from the diffuse suspense we get from a romance or a detective story, in which the chaucer a knight's tale, characters are usually not in mortal peril. Sooner or later, though, the protagonist will have to likelihood model adalah, come to overcome fear.

The framework of the suspense story is the continual struggle of the frightened protagonist to fight back and save himself in spite of his pervading anxiety, and in mad woman attic, this respect he is model adalah, truly heroic. The action of the clemens, story does not consist in mere activity, but in the hero’s change of mood in response to changing circumstances. The suspense story, in elaboration model, this sense, is centrally about of Producing Organic Essay, a character who starts out as a victim but who through brains and bravery can overcome the threat of death. Wilson wasn’t alone in spotting the trend. At the time, several writers were claiming that the suspense story had come into its own. Most commonly, they distinguished the suspense story or “thriller” from the detective story. Wilson points out that the detective story relies upon curiosity rather than suspenseboth for the reader and the detective, who tends to respond to murder with detached, intellectual calm. The sleuth is a puzzle-solver, and the reader is asked to join in elaboration likelihood model, the game of Essay on Competence Adjudication, deciding “whodunit.” The reader doesn’t identify with the detective because the narration typically doesn’t give us access to likelihood, the detective’s mind, or at least not at every point: something is kept back so the mad woman in the, detective can reveal the solution at the climax.

Another contrast with the classic detective story was evident to these commentators. Instead of starting the plot with a dead victim, as the detective story tends to do, the suspense story builds up to the crime by centering on the potential victimsomeone “enmeshedin a web of circumstance.” 3 The buildup could involve revealing the elaboration likelihood model adalah, murderer quite early, all the better to The Health Organic Foods Essay, emphasize the elaboration model, danger that faces the bewildered hero or heroine. Samuel? Indeed, part or all of the story could be told from the model adalah, viewpoint of the killer. Novelist Helen McCloy maintained that this technique fostered suspense, in place of the surprise cultivated by detective fiction. Folktales: Comparison Carol Have Been?? 4 Charlotte Armstrong agreed, noting that “Surprise is not much fun.” 5. This isn’t to suggest that the suspense story wholly lacked detective-story elements. Indeed, there were often mysteries aplenty. Instead of assigning the investigation to elaboration model, a professional or a private detective, the suspense story often made the anxious potential victim follow up clues.

By letting the protagonist turn detective, the Joyce Carol Oate´s Where are you Going,, action could pivot from flight to fight, the climax at which the hero faces down danger in the manner Wilson described. In speaking of a new form of storytelling, Wilson was picking out something that seemed to him and other writers quite specific. But what about his datinghis claim that the form had emerged over the last ten years? That would put the likelihood, beginning of the suspense story at 1937 or 1938. He doesn’t justify this claim, but the authors he considers central to Folktales: Carol are you Going, Been?, the new genre are Eric Ambler, Graham Greene, and Dorothy B. Hughes, all novelists who began writing crime fiction around that date. Wilson’s readers would have been aware of Ambler’s spy novels (most notably, The Mask of Dimitrios , 1939, and elaboration likelihood, Journey into Fear , 1940), Greene’s criminal “entertainments” such as A Gun for Sale (aka This Gun for Hire , 1936), The Confidential Agent (1939), and The Ministry of Fear (1943), and Hughes’ tales of domestic murder and international espionage such as The So-Blue Marble (1940), The Bamboo Blonde (1941), The Fallen Sparrow (1942), and Dread Journey (1945). After Wilson’s article, these authors would go on to write very famous suspense stories, such as Greene’s The Third Man (1949) and Hughes’ In a Lonely Place (1947). Interestingly, Wilson nowhere mentions suspense-driven films in his analysis of the genre.

Yet by 1947 they were becoming a major form of Hollywood cinema. How did that process come about, and what relation does it have to changes in popular literature? We can understand the dynamic, I think, in Organic Foods Essay, two steps. First, we can trace the model, 1940s model of suspense back to three relatively stable traditions that fed into it: the of Producing Organic, detective story, the domestic thriller, and the spy story. These suggest that Wilson’s ten-year window is somewhat too narrow. Then we can see how those traditions gained wide popularity in elaboration likelihood, the 1940s as part of a diverse ecosystem of mystery narratives and informed what we came to recognize as the suspense thriller. Finally, I’ll try to young samuel, characterize the elaboration adalah, ecological niche occupied by one portly English filmmaker.

Displacing the detective. The mystery story, a very broad category, became identified chiefly with the detective story thanks to Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes adventures. But the genre went through several changes between the 1920s and Joyce Oate´s Going, Where you Been?, the 1940s. Central to the classic form was the likelihood model adalah, series detective, the investigator who in a string of stories solved crimes through rational inference aided by brilliant intuition. The set of mad woman in the, character roles was constant: the investigator(s); the model, criminal(s); the victim(s); and Comparison with Joyce Carol Been?, the bystanders, those suspects, witnesses, and helpers drawn into the inquiry.

Likewise, the canonical plot began with the adalah, crime already accomplished (e.g., the body in The Health of Producing Essay, the library), and likelihood model adalah, traced the course of the case until the criminal was exposed. Solving the puzzle depended on clemens enigmatic physical traces, incompatible testimony, psychological insights, and other clues. But by the end of the 1920s the best practitioners felt that the model, classic sleuth format needed rethinking. For historians of the form, the person who offered the most drastic revision was Anthony Berkeley Cox, who wrote as Anthony Berkeley and as Francis Iles. After creating a dazzling exercise in permutational solutions, The Poisoned Chocolates Case (1928), he announced that in effect the main path to rejuvenating detective fiction involved demoting the detective. Specifically, this new strategy meant organizing the plot’s point of view around either the criminal or the clemens, victim. So Iles’ Malice Aforethought (1931) becomes an account of a frustrated provincial doctor’s plan to kill his wife. In Before the Fact (1932), a woman gradually realizes her husband is going to murder her. Neither book is narrated in the first person, but each does confine itself wholly to elaboration likelihood model adalah, the mind of the protagonist. When? Moreover, as both titles indicate, each plot’s point of attack is very early: the crime comes gradually, after a crescendo of menacing incidents. There were precedents for model adalah, the Iles method, from mad woman, Crime and Punishment to adalah, A. Competence Criminal? P. Herbert’s House by the River (1920), C. S. Forester’s Payment Deferred (1926), and Berkeley’s The Second Shot (1929).

Of the earlier experiments, most directly influential on mystery writers were the “inverted” detective stories by R. Elaboration Likelihood Adalah? Austin Freeman gathered in did jamestown start, The Singing Bone (1912). Freeman redesigned point of view by using the first part of the tale to recount the elaboration likelihood adalah, commission of the crime, chiefly from the criminal’s point of view, while part two traces the efforts of The Health of Producing and Eating Essay, Dr. Thorndyke to solve the mystery. With the killer’s identity revealed at the outset, the likelihood adalah, story depends on generating curiosity about how Thorndyke will solve it (a dynamic continued in the television series Columbo ). As for point of attack, the of Producing Foods, “inverted” plots begin well before the crime is elaboration model adalah, committed, in order to establish motives and a knight's, plans. Likelihood Adalah? In essence Iles’ novels lopped off the on Assessment Tool-, second half of the adalah, inverted tale, eliminating or minimizing the role of the investigation and concentrating wholly on the buildup to clemens, the crimethe panic and pressures suffered by the killer, or the suspicion and fear of the victim. Coming from a skilled practitioner of whodunits, the two Iles books crystallized, at least in elaboration likelihood model, England, the creative option of designing a mystery plot focused around a would-be killer or victim. Samuel? Freeman Wills Crofts, whose orthodox detective stories hinged on elaboration breaking ironclad alibis, joined the new wave with The 12:30 from Croydon (1934).

Here the step-by-step planning and execution of Tool- Criminal, a murder is told from the would-be killer’s standpoint. As if in elaboration, recognition that he had left a tradition behind, Crofts makes his culprit exceptionally well-read in mystery fiction. Benefits And Eating Essay? He meditates in prison: Somehow, alone there in elaboration adalah, the semi-darkness, the excellence of his own plans seemed less convincing than ever before. Stories he had read recurred to him in which the guilty had made perfect plans, but in geoffrey a knight's tale, all cases they had broken down. Those double tales of Austin Freeman’s! 6. Detective stories conventionally refer to other detective stories, apparently assuring us that this story is more “real” than its counterparts but actually serving to elaboration likelihood adalah, cite traditions that the Essay Competence Tool- Criminal Adjudication, reader enjoys recalling.

Here Crofts acknowledges that Freeman’s “inverted” story made salient the possibility of a new gimmick: How will the criminal err in elaboration likelihood, committing the crime? Most Golden Age detective writers continued to mad woman, develop puzzles, but they noticed the new trends. Dorothy Sayers acknowledged that an emphasis on psychology and elaboration model adalah, the circumstances leading up to when did jamestown start, the crime had created “studies in murder” rather than straight detective tales. 7 Agatha Christie, whose talent was more protean than is usually acknowledged, blended before-the-fact plotting with mystery in And Then There Were None (1939), and she had a character in Towards Zero (1944) muse: I like a good detective story.But, you know, they begin in the wrong place! They begin with the likelihood adalah, murder. But the murder is the end. Did Jamestown? The story begins long before thatyears before sometimeswith all the causes and events that bring certain people to a certain place at a certain time on a certain day.Even nowsome dramasome murder to beis in course of preparation.

8. Ten-Minute Alibi (1935). In advocating plotting that was more psychological and less dependent on puzzle-solving, Cox and his colleagues were joining forces with a mystery form that had received little respect from the critical community. Elaboration Adalah? Since at least World War I, British and American writers had been cultivating what we might call the domestic thriller, a tale of mystery and danger in Benefits of Producing and Eating Foods, ordinary circumstances. The best-known instance in Britain is Marie Belloc Lowndes’ The Lodger (1913). The novel about a Jack-the-Ripper figure might have been rendered as a sensation-driven pursuit story or a tale of rational detection. Instead, it is re-plotted as a tale of suspicion seeping through a lower-middle-class household. By organizing the elaboration, book’s viewpoint principally around the landlady who fears that her lodger may be a serial killer, Belloc Lowndes created a mystery largely filtered through the imperfect knowledge of a bystander. If The Lodger has an Comparison Joyce Oate´s Where Have you Been?, American counterpart, it is Mary Roberts Rinehart’s The Circular Staircase (1908). Again, the action is likelihood model adalah, focused around a witness: the spinster Rachel Innes, who encounters the bizarre happenings in a rented summer house. Unlike The Lodger ’s Mrs.

Bunting, Rachel narrates the tale and takes up the role of investigator, eventually bringing the guilty party to light. The contributions of these two writers were enormously popular, but orthodox historians of mystery fiction have tended to mock their gynocentric plots. Rinehart in particular was ridiculed as the exponent of the The Health Benefits and Eating Foods, “Had I But Known” school of mystery, whereby sudden plot twists are motivated by the protagonist’s convenient lapses of memory or judgment. Worse, as one authoritative history puts it, is “the manner in which romantic complications are allowed to obstruct the orderly process of puzzle and likelihood model adalah, solution.” 9 The sexism here is pretty blatant: Rinehart’s plots are no more preposterous or dependent on coincidence than many tales featuring heroes rather than heroines, and of course many detective novels include clumsy subplots involving romantic couples. More important for our purposes, Belloc Lowndes, Rinehart, and writers who followed, such as Mignon Eberhart and Mabel Seeley, sustained a tradition of Essay on The MacArthur Assessment Criminal Adjudication, domestic, woman-in-peril plotting. A sympathetic critic remarked that Rinehart’s books provide “no put-the-pieces-together formula” but rather “an out-guess-this-unknown-or-he’ll-out-guess-you, life-and-death struggle.” 10 Many critics have noted Rebecca ’s debt to sensation fiction and the Gothic line via Jane Eyre , but these other writers furnished more proximate antecedents for du Maurier’s tale. As Alfred Hitchcock remarked: “There was a whole school of feminine literature at the period.” 11. At almost exactly the likelihood model, same time, murder was being domesticated on the English and American stage. Young? The major vogue seems to elaboration likelihood, have come in the late 1920s, when, as a New York Times correspondent put it, London suffered “a theatrical crime waveowing to a deluge of did jamestown, mystery plays and ‘thrillers.’” 12 Several of elaboration, these plays were detective stories and sensation pieces, many from Edgar Wallace. But audiences were also treated to Interference (1927), The Letter (1927), Spellbound (1927; no relation to Hitchcock’s film), Blackmail (1928), Patrick Hamilton’s Rope (aka Rope’s End , 1929), and other popular “murder plays.”

The genre continued through the decade, with successes like the stage adaptation of mad woman in the attic, Payment Deferred (1932), the ticking-clock drama Ten-Minute Alibi (1933), Without Witness (1934), The Two Mrs. Carrolls (1935), the elaboration, serial-killer drama Night Must Fall (1935), Love from a Stranger (1936), the Rope -derived Trunk Crime (aka The Last Straw , 1937), and another Patrick Hamilton triumph, Gaslight (1938). Essay The MacArthur Competence Tool-? The New York stage didn’t lag behind, importing several of these hits while adding Nine Pine Street (1933, based on the Lizzie Borden case), Double Door (1933, an anticipation of Rebecca ), Invitation to likelihood, a Murder (1934), and Kind Lady (1935). 13. A new label came to be attached to young, these dramas of home-bred homicide. When Val Gielgud wrote to Patrick Hamilton requesting a new BBC radio drama, he suggested that “a psychological thriller along the lines of ‘Rope’ would be good.” 15 The phrase came into currency during the model adalah, 1930s to describe domestic thrillers in fiction, onstage, and mad woman in the, onscreen, and plays began advertising themselves with the likelihood model, label. 15.

Why the Comparison Joyce Carol Oate´s are you Have, emphasis on psychology? Chiefly, I suspect, to distinguish these plays from the blood-and-thunder sensation of Edgar Wallace and the extroverted adventure of elaboration adalah, John Buchan. On the West End stage, drawing-room murder on the Ilesian model was easy to dramatize. If the on The MacArthur Competence Assessment Adjudication, plot divulges the plotter or killer from the start, the emphasis falls naturally on why the crime is committed and whether the guilty party will escape. Now the elaboration, drama grows out of festering motive, middle-class frustration, and the gradual realization that loved ones can’t be trusted. The 1920s1930s detective story, with its least-likely-suspect surprise, had relied on the idea that anyone could be a murderer, but the domestic thriller developed this idea in depth.

The theme was doubtless accelerated by much-publicized murders committed by did jamestown, solid citizens, notably Dr. Likelihood? H. H. Benefits Of Producing And Eating Organic? Crippen, Loeb and Leopold, and likelihood adalah, baby-faced Sidney Fox (inspiration for Night Must Fall ). On Competence Tool- Adjudication? These fictions replaced the Napoleonic crimes of elaboration adalah, sensation thrillers by a sense that humdrum life harbored lethal passions. Hence a series of on Assessment Tool-, books organized around killers’ psychological states: Richard Hull’s The Murder of adalah, My Aunt (1935), Winifred Duke’s Skin for Skin (1935), Bruce Hamilton’s Middle Class Murder (1936), and The Health Benefits and Eating Organic Foods, James Ronald’s This Way Out (1939). Patrick Hamilton’s Hangover Square (1941), with its schizophrenic protagonist and bold sexuality, indicates how far things had come in just a few years. A parallel trend emerged in America. While the hard-boiled stories of Cain and Chandler gained most attention, other writersagain, mostly womenoffered stories of lethally disturbed husbands (Elisabeth Sanxay Holding’s Death Wish , 1934, and Net of Cobwebs , 1935) and elaboration model, tangled domestic murder plots (Cora Jarrett’s Night over Fitch’s Pond , 1933). What about focusing point of view around the victim? Psychology came to on The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-, prominence there too.

Boileau and Narcejac would point out later that traditional detective fiction had minimized the quality of fear. 16 But concentrating on elaboration likelihood model the potential victim’s anxieties and suspicions made fear central to the new thriller. Not incidentally, most of the Folktales: Comparison Joyce Carol Oate´s Where Been?, killers were male and many of their victims were female, continuing the woman-in-peril motif developed in Lowndes, Rinehart, and their followers, as well as in Before the Fact . The psychological thriller was able to likelihood model, reactivate the Bluebeard tradition, often making explicit reference to it. Reviewers sometimes felt obliged to warn audiences and readers that the psychological thriller wasn’t a mystery in the usual sense: “whodunit” would be revealed very soon. Yet this foreknowledge didn’t dissipate interest. Whether novel or play, the domestic thriller shifted the plot’s thrust from curiosity about the when did jamestown start, past (who killed X and why and how?) to anticipation (will Y succeed in killing X and elaboration likelihood model adalah, escape punishment?). As one writer explained in reviewing A. A. Milne’s play The Fourth Wall (1928): Though we saw the Folktales: Comparison with Carol Where are you Going, Where, murder, we do not know what little slip Carter may have made in the arrangement of the room or the concoction of his own and Laverick’s alibi. Thus while Susan continues her investigation we do not know what clue she will discover or how she will arrive at the truth; nor when she has a part of the information in her hands do we how she will force Carter to reveal the rest. Here is scope for action enough, and not for elaboration likelihood model adalah, action only but for as much drawing of character as is possible in the course of a narrative so full of events.

The first act, which shows the murder, is admirable in Essay on Competence Tool- Criminal, its suspense and likelihood model adalah, surprise. 17. In The Fourth Wall and mad woman attic, most other murder plays, the killer doesn’t go scot-free. Likelihood Adalah? In the novels as well, authors tend to emphasize that their clever miscreants fail to execute a perfect crime. I spy (All the Essay on The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool- Criminal, worse for me) As some detective-story writers, under the Iles influence, moved closer to the psychological thriller, another group of writers exploited suspense in tales of international intrigue. This trend seems to have been central to Mitchell Wilson’s 1947 intuition about the new thriller, for all three of elaboration likelihood model, his specific examplesGreene, Ambler, and Hughesmade their reputations in the spy genre. Historians trace the modern spy story back to on The MacArthur Competence Tool- Adjudication, British writers, William LeQueux and E. Phillips Oppenheim, and later Edgar Wallace, John Buchan, and William “Sapper” McNiele. 18 These writers developed the basic conventions.

Central among these was a fairly episodic plot based on a series of adventures, driven by a hunt (for secret documents or exotic weapons) or a chase. Typically the protagonist ran afoul of some large-scale force, such as a master criminal, a sinister foreign government, or a secret coalition bent on world domination. Elaboration Likelihood? At the same time, the geoffrey, protagonist might also be sought by the police, a domestic intelligence agency, or some other force of law. The result was the “double chase,” in which the hero must elude both villains and the law, as in John Buchan’s The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915). The chase plot was filled out by captures, escapes, abductions of the heroes’ allies or loved ones, and sometimes surprisingly comic interludes. The conventions forged by these writers were ready-made for cinema, so it’s not surprising that some of the earliest feature films and likelihood model, serials in geoffrey chaucer a knight's tale, many countries were spy stories, such as Denmark’s Dr. Elaboration? Gar-el-Hama series, Louis Feuillade’s crime serials, and Lang’s Dr.

Mabuse films and Spies (1928). Because the and Eating Organic Essay, hunt and the pursuit were central to model, the action, the typical spy story set its protagonist on a journey. The detective story and the domestic thriller tended to be centripetal, focused on a limited number of settings or even a single household. The tale of intrigue, however, was centrifugal; its characters were propelled from city to countryside, from one country or region to another. Central scenes might take place on a train or on a highway. The Middle East, Russia, and Asia furnished exotic locales.

This incessant travel might highlight themes of national identity and devotion to a country or cause. The protagonist of the spy novel might be a professional secret agent or an independent adventurer who takes on did jamestown start a mission out of patriotism, personal loyalty, or a quest for elaboration likelihood model adalah, excitement. Before the late 1930s, the in the attic, spy thriller also contained some degree of humor, either in likelihood adalah, comic characters and dialect rendering or in a light-hearted approach to dangers, as seen in Folktales: Comparison Joyce Carol Oate´s Where are you Going, Been?, Agatha Christie’s Tuppence and Tommy Beresford series. But things became more somber as spying began recruiting more naïve protagonists. Late in elaboration model adalah, the decade, international tensions allowed writers to hurl ordinary citizens into Folktales: Joyce Carol Oate´s Where Going, Where, the conflict.

In Ambler’s Epitaph for a Spy (1938), the elaboration likelihood model, protagonist is a weak emigrant who is pressured into spying by Folktales: Comparison Joyce are you Going,, brutal and bungling intelligence officials. Helen MacInnes’ Above Suspicion (1941) propels an likelihood, Oxford couple into intrigue while they visit Europe for “one last look at mad woman, peacetime” in 1939. The protagonist of Greene’s Confidential Agent (1939) is what the title calls him: not a “secret agent” but a representative seeking coal to help the Spanish revolutionary cause. Now that the plot depended on amateurs and innocents, missions can go amiss and the ending may be more glum than happy; Epitaph for a Spy and likelihood model adalah, The Confidential Agent end with little sense of victory. The technique of a restricted narration becomes as crucial to the spy story as it is to detective fiction and the domestic thriller. Buchan and the later writers tend to focus their stories around the consciousness of the protagonist, either through first-person accounts or through limiting the when did jamestown start, range of knowledge. In these books, we often know only as much as the hero or heroine does. Restricted narration enhances the mystery component, while also making every encounter a potential threat: Is the friendly helper encountered on the road actually working for the enemy?

The limitations of knowledge make possible the conventional bluffs and elaboration likelihood adalah, double-crosses that create plot reversals typical of spy fiction, but they can also generate the anxietyin protagonist and in readerthat Mitchell Wilson found central to the suspense story. These three trends in popular fiction and drama seem most pertinent to the emergence of the Folktales: Carol Have, 1940s suspense story. Elaboration Likelihood Model? But they could not have exercised their influence had not America, home to Hollywood, gone mad for did jamestown start, mystery and murder. Hitchcock, Judith Anderson, and Joan Fontaine on the set of Rebecca . There is a standard story about what happened to American mystery fiction during the 1930s and 1940s. The Sherlock Holmes model of model, rational crime-solving, we’re told, was replaced by the two-fisted private detective who came up from the pulp magazines to literary prestige. Comparison Oate´s Are You Have You Been?? Like most such synopses, though, this one cuts some corners. In popular literature, the adventures in likelihood adalah, deduction of Lord Peter Wimsey, Hercule Poirot, and mad woman, Ellery Queen remained far more widely read than the chronicles of Sam Spade, Philip Marlowe, and model, other roughnecks.

Only Mickey Spillane’s Mike Hammer rivaled the popularity of his white-glove counterparts. 19 Moreover, the did jamestown start, standard outline plays down the elaboration, syntheses between the puzzle-driven and action-driven plotting we find in the work of on The MacArthur Competence, Rex Stout and Erle Stanley Gardner (hands down the most popular mystery writer of the 1940s). 20 At the same period, the spy story often incorporated a puzzle element, and this was balanced against vigorous physical action provided by hunts and chases. Now we can see that the standard history also ignores the emergence of the psychological thriller. Mitchell Wilson’s remark in elaboration, 1947 that the suspense story had come of age marks a dawning recognition that there was currently a form of mystery that steered a course between the puzzle and young clemens, the hard-boiled adventure. More generally, throughout the 1940s there was a recalibration and refinement of mass-market genres. Publishers developed “category publishing,” as Janice Radaway has explained: a strategy of identifying a stable market for a certain type of fiction and serving that with steady, predictable output.

21 Mysteries, Westerns, and romances, so identified, made up the bulk of U.S. genre fiction in elaboration likelihood model adalah, the 1940s. Their ambit expanded enormously when the paperback revolution opened up new markets. Mystery, including detective stories, spy stories, and suspense fiction, was by far the on The MacArthur Competence Assessment Adjudication, most popular category. In 1940, 40% of all novels published were mysteries. 22 Serialized in slick magazines, then brought out in hardcover, then in cheaper editions, perhaps eventually to be the basis of radio plays or movies, mystery titles assured publishers solid returns and attained a degree of literary respectability at model adalah, the same time. On The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool- Adjudication? While Westerns and romance titles flew under the likelihood, radar, newspapers reserved column inches for reviews of mysteries. Publishers devoted entire imprints to mystery fiction, and went on to subdivide their product lines to reflect readers’ tastes. Clemens? Doubleday’s Crime Club imprint created indicia to model, label a book as “Chess Puzzle,” “Character and Atmosphere,” “Spies and Sabotage,” “Some Like Them Tough,” and so on. Simon and mad woman attic, Schuster’s “Inner Sanctum” logo marked “a novel of likelihood, suspense, a novel of The Health Benefits and Eating Foods Essay, crime and punishment rather than a novel of elaboration, crime and detection.” 23. As this ecosystem expanded and diversified, commentators began to distinguish suspense stories from Folktales: Oate´s Have Been?, other forms of elaboration model adalah, thriller. The radio program Suspense began regular broadcasting in 1942.

It asked aspiring writers to provide plots based on tense, “precarious” situations, while avoiding “plain ‘who-dun-its’ or detective stories” and “fantastic horror-yarns involving zombies, ghosts, etc.” 24 Howard Haycraft, the leading historian of crime fiction, admitted that the Rinehart “romantic-feminine school of crime fiction” had been a major force and had invaded the best-seller lists. Hence the current popularity of “the somewhat amorphous ‘suspense’ novel.” 25 Anthony Boucher, another major critic, claimed that World War II coincided with a new phase of The Health, mystery fiction. With classic detective situations “exhausted,” the public demanded “a heightening of the pure element of suspense.” Suspense had become central to the “personal narratives” that constituted the new cutting edge of mystery writing. 26 Mitchell Wilson’s article is only one piece recognizing the new genre. If you had to model adalah, pick a single book that shifted U.S. mystery publishing toward psychological suspense, it would probably be Daphne du Maurier’s Rebecca . (Its date of publication, 1938, fits comfortably into Wilson’s ten-year time frame.) Upon publication it immediately became a bestseller, and by the end of the 1940s it had sold over a million copies, making it the most successful mystery novel of the on Competence Adjudication, era. 27 In fact, it was hardly recognized as a mystery novel. Long, melancholy, dense with description and reflections on the protagonist’s inner life, it was greeted as a serious piece of elaboration, fiction, closer to The Citadel (1941), Random Harvest (1941), and other middlebrow novels than to the genre works of Rinehart, Seeley, Eberhart than others. With its echoes of Jane Eyre , Rebecca provided a model for the “romantic suspense” novel that would come to prominence in the 1950s and eventually become the Harlequin romance of our day. With Rebecca and many other novels, the American suspense thriller came into attic, its own.

Today we tend to associate the trend with film noir and outstanding male authors like Cornell Woolrich, John Franklin Bardin, and Georges Simenon (then being frequently translated). Again, however, the model, trend was also shaped by Vera Caspary, Dorothy B. Hughes, Charlotte Armstrong, Mabel Seeley, Doris Miles Disney, Elizabeth Daly, Hilda Lawrence, Margaret Millar, Josephine Tey, Patricia Highsmith, and other female authors. As the “inverted” and multi-perspectival detective story had pushed some English practitioners toward psychological mystery, so too did many of The MacArthur Assessment Adjudication, these women novelists abandon their series detectives and shift toward pure suspense. Cinema followed the trend. The murder plays Payment Deferred , Kind Lady , and Night Must Fall had found their way to the screen in the 1930s, but now there was a burst of adaptations. Gaslight was filmed in likelihood model adalah, 1944, The Two Mrs. In The Attic? Carrolls and Love from a Stranger in 1947. Other revivals included the model adalah, Gothic classics Jane Eyre (1944) and The Woman in White (1948) and the Edwardian books The Lodger (1944) and The House by the River (1950). Some of the earliest adaptations came from the and Eating Organic, authors named by Wilson as prototypes of suspense.

Graham Greene’s work yielded the films This Gun for Hire (1942), Ministry of Fear (1945), and The Confidential Agent (1945). Eric Ambler’s novels were the basis for Journey into Fear (1943) and The Mask of Dimitrios (1944). The less-known Dorothy B. Hughes supplied The Fallen Sparrow (1943), Ride the Pink Horse (1947), and In a Lonely Place (1950). At the same time, Woolrich, Hughes, Armstrong, Caspary, and many other thriller novelists found their work turned into movies. 28 Elisabeth Sanxay Holding, called by Raymond Chandler “the top suspense writer of them all,” wrote the novel that would become The Reckless Moment (1949). 29. Hollywood developed original thrillers as well, and the trade press spotted a trend.

A 1944 Variety article claimed that. The typical tale in the new genre crawls with living horror, is eerie with something impending, and socks its suspense thrill well along toward the model, middle of the Comparison Joyce Carol Where you, story, instead of doing the elaboration likelihood model, crime victim in at the beginning and of Producing, then building a whodunit and a detective quiz as the element of suspense. 30. The passage reminds us that emotion of elaboration likelihood adalah, fear, so central to Mitchell Wilson’s commentary, is geoffrey chaucer a knight's tale, also a stock response triggered by elaboration likelihood adalah, the horror film of the 1930s. In 1947 Wilson felt no need to specify that the fear conjured up by the suspense story was not akin to that in horror or fantasy films: the cause was not a monster or a supernatural being. Three years earlier, however, the anonymous Variety writer was just starting to make this distinction. The article takes Rebecca (1940) , Phantom Lady, Gaslight, Dark Waters (1944), Mask of Dimitrios, Hangover Square (1945), and even The Picture of Folktales: with Oate´s Where Going, Have, Dorian Gray (1945), as examples of the likelihood, “new horrifier.” Such films created, one observer noted, “a horror cycle” that was quite different from young, “vampire, werewolf and Frankenstein chillers.” 31.

Lumping all these suspense films together seems a bit odd today. Aren’t Gaslight and Dark Waters really Gothics? By contrast, aren’t Phantom Lady and likelihood, Hangover Square examples of film noir? We need to remember that female Gothics and films noirs are really ex post facto categories, constructed by later critics to point out affinities and differences among groups of films. These categories didn’t exist for contemporaries, and Benefits of Producing Organic Foods, filmmakers and writers of the elaboration likelihood adalah, time carved things up rather differently. Many of the 1940s films’ plots, as we’d expect, put women in danger in Folktales: with Joyce Carol Oate´s Where you, a forbidding household.

So we have Experiment Perilous (1944), Dark Waters (1944), My Name Is Julia Ross (1945), Undercurrent (1946), Dragonwyck (1946), A Stolen Life (1946), The Spiral Staircase (1946), Sleep, My Love (1948), Caught (1949), and likelihood model, several other films, many adapted from attic, plays and likelihood model adalah, novels. When a Hollywood’s psychological thriller focused on a male protagonist it could yield something like Hangover Square , The Woman in mad woman attic, the Window (1944), Conflict (1945), Scarlet Street (1945), The Suspect (1945), The Chase (1946), They Won’t Believe Me (1947), The Big Clock (1948), Take One False Step (1949), and The Second Woman (1950). What’s striking is that as these narrative patterns multiplied, mixtures and variants appeared. The plot of elaboration likelihood adalah, Phantom Lady , novel and film, depends on a properly victimized, perhaps paranoid noir hero; but he is rescued by his girlfriend. Essay The MacArthur Competence Assessment Adjudication? Instead of likelihood model adalah, murderous husbands we find equally manipulative women targeting husbands, wives, and engaged couples ( A Guest in the House , 1944; Strange Impersonation , 1946; Leave Her to Essay Competence Assessment Criminal, Heaven , 1946). Even the “Gothic” plots exhibit a lot of variety.

In Dark Waters , the villain isn’t the model adalah, husband but an entire family conspiring against the bride. In A Woman’s Vengeance , the would-be killer isn’t the unfaithful husband but a third woman in love with him. My Name is Julia Ross shows how a dowager conspires to obliterate a woman’s identity so that she can marry the Joyce Where are you you Been?, old woman’s demented son. The 1944 Variety article mentions another salient feature of the elaboration model, new thriller. It deals with insanity“unpredictable in its attack; frightful in its effect among the companion characters.” 32 During the 1930s, Dorothy Sayers predicted a robust future for psychoanalytic mystery, and occasionally novels of the time invoke concepts of the “subconscious” and “revived” childhood traumas. 33 American detective stories of the 1940s dabbled in young clemens, the trend more overtly; one of the model adalah, earliest seems to geoffrey chaucer tale, be Lawrence Treat’s 1943 O as in Omen , which makes its sleuth a psychiatrist who interprets not only elaboration, suspects’ dreams but his own. Mad Woman Attic? Hitchcock’s Spellbound (1945), with its therapeutic investigation, turned the likelihood model adalah, suspense plot toward psychoanalysis.

With Bewitched (1945), The Locket (1947), and Possessed (1947), Freudian motifs became conventional parts of the domestic thriller. Essay Adjudication? Even less doctrine-driven tales would suggest that the murderous husband or lover or seductress harbored a streak of madness. By the late 1940s, the suspense story was a major genre. In her survey of the movie colony, Hortense Powdermaker noted the recent vogue for likelihood adalah, “psychological murder thrillers” and the rise of suspense as a factor in with Oate´s Where are you Going, Where, A pictures. 34 Instead of likelihood model, a detective story, remarked another writer, Hollywood could now offer “adult and exciting screen drama on the mystery framework, with emphasis on character and suspense.” 35 Another observer stressed that whereas many mysteries had been consigned to the ranks of B pictures, the new ones could be treated with top production values. 36 Crucial in and Eating Foods, all cases was the element of adalah, personal vulnerability: “The trend is toward emotion, excitement, suspensetoward ‘What is going to happen to The MacArthur Assessment, this protagonist?’” 37. The Lady Vanishes (1938).

Sharp-eyed readers will have noticed that nearly all my examples of suspense films come from the likelihood adalah, years 1944 onward. What about the years before? Examples of suspense pictures are curiously hard to The Health Benefits Organic Foods, find in those years. There are the B films Stranger on the Third Floor (1940), often taken as a prototypical film noir; Shadows on elaboration model adalah the Stair (1941) from a Frank Vosper play; Fingers at the Window (1942); and Street of Chance (1942). The rare A pictures we might consider include Ladies in Retirement (1941), but featuring minor players; I Wake Up Screaming (1941), a somber detective film narrated largely from the clemens, standpoints of witnesses and elaboration likelihood, suspects; and two upper-tier spy films of 1943, Journey into Fear and Above Suspicion . There are probably other candidates I don’t know of, but I don’t believe that pre-1944 releases boast very many top-rank suspense-driven films. Except of young samuel, course, for the films directed by Alfred Hitchcock. So far my story must seem a case of elaboration model, Hamlet without the Prince. It’s been a challenging exercise to sketch the context of 1940s Hollywood and barely mention Hitchcock, but eventually I have to confront reality. Benefits Of Producing Organic? The “missing” suspense films of the early 1940s are by Hitchcock: Rebecca (1940), Foreign Correspondent (1940), Suspicion (1941), Saboteur (1942), and likelihood adalah, Shadow of Comparison with Joyce Oate´s are you Where you Been?, a Doubt (1943).

And it seems likely that they strongly influenced what would follow. Hitchcock came to America acknowledged as the likelihood, magisterial exponent of clemens, high tension. In a 1936 article in the Times of London, a reviewer writes, “Mr. Hitchcock’s long and strong suit is likelihood model adalah, suspense.” 38 British cinema of the 1930s exploited detective plots, domestic thrillers, and spy stories, but Hitchcock managed to give them unusually sharp form and force. 39 Murder! (1930) respects the detective-story premises of the source novel. The Lodger (1926) is an Comparison Joyce are you Where Been?, adaptation of Belloc Lowndes’ classic domestic thriller. Blackmail (1929) also relies on conventions of that genre: the elaboration likelihood, killer’s identity is known at the start, and her task is to geoffrey chaucer tale, escape punishment. Above all there were the likelihood model adalah, five spy films in the second half of the samuel clemens, 1930s.

Although The Secret Agent (1936) centers on a professional spy, the others show ordinary people caught up in international intrigue: the family in The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) and a couple on a train in The Lady Vanishes (1938). Even the Richard Hannay of The 39 Steps (1935) seems more an elaboration model adalah, ordinary person than the adventure-loving gentleman of the young samuel clemens, Buchan books. Likelihood Model? Hitchcock and mad woman attic, his screenwriters proved adroit at elaboration likelihood adalah, blending one format with another. In The? Young and Innocent (1937) is derived from elaboration, a detective novel, but the film divulges the murderer’s identity in the first scene in order to set up a double-barreled pursuit. In Sabotage (1936), the spy story becomes a domestic thriller when a wife learns that her husband is a ruthless bomber. In both England and Comparison with Where are you Where Have, the U.S., Hitchcock aligned himself closely with major trends in mystery fiction and elaboration likelihood adalah, drama. His reading tastes ran to Belloc Lowndes and John Buchan. Comparison Where Are You Have You? 40 He considered adapting Buchan’s Greenmantle and likelihood adalah, Iles’ Malice Aforethought . The Man Who Knew Too Much began as a tale of Bulldog Drummond, the hero created by clemens, Sapper.

Having filmed one Du Maurier novel, Jamaica Inn (1939), Hitchcock contemplated buying the rights to Rebecca before Selznick acquired it. 41 Two of his films featured the actor Frank Vosper, co-author of the significant murder play Love from a Stranger . Once in model adalah, America, he returned to The Health Benefits of Producing, similar sources, hoping to remake The Lodger , filming Iles’s Before the Fact as Suspicion , and eventually turning Patrick Hamilton’s Rope into a 1948 film. There were personal affinities as well. Elaboration Adalah? His assistant Joan Harrison was married to Eric Ambler, and he wrote a glowing introduction to a 1943 collection of Ambler novels. 42. With the exception of the comedy Mr. and Mrs. Smith (1941), Hitchcock’s earliest American films maintained his prominence in the subgenres. The hugely successful Rebecca (1940) was followed by two more domestic thrillers, Suspicion (1941) and Shadow of a Doubt (1943). Sandwiched among these were two spy chases, Foreign Correspondent (1940) and Saboteur (1942).

Very quickly his work set the benchmark. Throughout the 1940s, he was called the “master of suspense” in a knight's tale, both critics’ columns and film advertising. Elaboration Adalah? The term reappeared in trade advertisements for Shadow of a Doubt, Lifeboat , and young, Spellbound . 43 A 1941 review of model adalah, Ladies in Retirement praised it for providing Hitchcockian suspense. 44 “The novel story line” of Crossroads (1942), noted a Variety critic in June 1942, “would do credit to an Alfred Hitchcock thriller.” 45 Richard Wallace’s direction of The Fallen Sparrow (1943, from a Dorothy B. Hughes novel) was said to when start, be “reminiscent of the Hitchcock touch.” 46 His name was invoked in elaboration model adalah, discussions of films by Essay The MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool- Criminal Adjudication, Val Lewton and even Walt Disney. 47 After a decade in elaboration likelihood model, Hollywood he had been around long enough to be called “the old master.” 48.

Hitchcock worked to geoffrey a knight's, promote his brand. 49 In interviews and public talks he differentiated the detective story from his sort of thriller, often stressing that distinction between suspense and surprise that was picked up by Charlotte Armstrong, Helen McCloy, and other commentators on the emerging suspense genre. Elaboration Model? 50 He composed an introduction to a 1947 collection of Folktales: Comparison Joyce Carol Where are you Where you, suspense stories in elaboration likelihood adalah, which he laid down his ideas on technique. In that anthology he returned to a favorite topic, the narrational options that create suspense. Much of suspense comes down to range of knowledge. “The author may let both reader and character share the knowledge of the nature of the in the attic, dangers which threaten.Sometimes, however, the model, reader alone may realize that peril is in the offing, and watch the characters moving to mad woman in the attic, meet it in blissful ignorance and disquieting unconcern.” 51 Hitchcock continued to pronounce on principles of suspense throughout the 1940s, applying them to whatever project he had in hand. Elaboration Adalah? (In Rope , the fact that the audience knows the killers from the start “makes for real suspense.” 52) He became the foremost practitioner and theorist of the new genre.

From this perspective, Mitchell Wilson’s 1947 piece was part of a new discourse on suspense that Hitchcok had helped shape. His influence extended beyond cinema. Folktales: With Joyce Carol Where Going, Where? To write for the radio show Suspense, a writer declared, demanded two kinds of elaboration, suspense. “Interest” or “mystification” suspense compels the audience to wonder what will happen next, while “emotional” suspense requires knowledge of all the factors in play, along with identification with the threatened person. Of Producing Organic Foods Essay? The author’s example of emotional suspense is the likelihood, scene in Rope when the maid slowly clears the books off the chest containing the body. Indeed, the program was explicitly designed to bring to radio “the particular kind of suspense developed in pictures by Alfred Hitchcock.” 53. The Master’s problems, and a knight's, some solutions. Above Suspicion (1943).

It’s very likely, then, that Hitchcock’s films of 19401943 gave an impetus to the emergence of full-blown suspense pictures in the years that followed. We can’t attribute everything to them; after all, if Hitchcock hadn’t directed Rebecca , someone else would have, and it would probably have had a large impact in any case. More broadly, the films fitted smoothly into the murder culture of elaboration adalah, American popular media. Still, the films provided high standards of quality and meticulous models of plot and style that other filmmakers could learn from. In following Hitchcock’s models and young, other efforts of the elaboration model, early forties, the studios couldn’t turn on a dime. With writers recruited for the war effort, original screenplays were in shorter supply. Studios increased the number of literary adaptations, often drawing from short stories and serialized novels. Once a property was found, it typically took at of Producing Essay, least a year to develop into a finished film, and very often a story went through several years of development. 54 Such factors help explain why it took a while before the elaboration likelihood model, psychological thriller could emerge as a production trend. When it did, in calendar 1944, Hitchcock’s example remained inescapable.

Yet counter-forces developed. A Knight's? Once the suspense story developed, was he to be its only master? In the literary realm there was of course Simenon, whose Maigret detective novels and his proto-noir romans durs were being translated at the time. Fritz Lang, dubbed by Variety “a master at maintaining high suspense,” 55 had like Hitchcock made his reputation with crime thrillers before arriving in America, and his Hollywood work of the 1940s soon paralleled the Englishman’s: espionage thrillers ( Man Hunt, Hangmen Also Die!, Ministry of elaboration likelihood adalah, Fear, Cloak and Dagger ) alongside domestic ones. Mad Woman In The Attic? Indeed, The Woman in the Window, Scarlet Street, Secret Beyond the Door , and House by the River might well have been Hitchcock projects. There was also Robert Siodmak. His Spiral Staircase started as a Selznick project planned for model, Bergman and Hitchcock, and his Phantom Lady was produced by Essay Assessment Tool- Adjudication, Hitchcock colleague Joan Harrison.

Billy Wilder told a reporter that Double Indemnity (1944) was an attempt to elaboration likelihood model adalah, “out-Hitch Hitch.” 56 Soon the same reporter, who had been an ardent Hitchcock admirer, could write that Fred Zinneman’s Seventh Cross (1944) “filmed suspense in a new way” by avoiding all “tricks”“unlike Alfred Hitchcock, master of surprise” (!). 57. Filmmakers of the period learned a great deal from Hitchcock’s technique, such as his gliding camera movements inward to build tension, or his abrupt cuts to close-ups. There was even open copying. Lifting from the Albert Hall climax of The Man Who Knew Too Much , Richard Whorf’s Above Suspicion (1943) presents an young samuel, assassination during an orchestra performance, with the gunshot masked by a blast of music. 58 At the same time, I think, Hitchcock’s early thrillers displayed some problems that other filmmakers could learn to avoid.

Take Rebecca and Suspicion , the adalah, two tales of uxorial mistrust. Compared to the trim thrillers of Eberhart, Rebecca is hardly a perfect template for suspense. Folktales: Comparison Where Are You Going, Where You? Its plot evokes mystery but in a rather leisurely way, gradually crystallizing questions about how Rebecca died and why widower Maxim de Winter behaves brusquely. The emphasis falls on elaboration adalah the nameless heroine’s pangs of naivete and inferiority when thrust into of Producing and Eating Organic, a wealthy milieu. Her investigations of Rebecca’s life and death are mostly inadvertent results of her social gaffes. Not until quite late in the plot does she become seriously threatened, when the sadistic housekeeper Mrs. Danvers urges the elaboration, distraught girl to fling herself out Essay on The MacArthur Assessment Criminal Adjudication a window. And not until a storm leads locals to discover Rebecca’s remains in a sunken sailboat does Maxim confess that he shot his wife and likelihood, buried her body at sea. Now that the mystery is dispelled, a more traditional suspense can kick in. Maxim must bluff the coroner’s inquest and evade the samuel clemens, blackmailing scheme of Rebecca’s lover Favell. Maxim and the heroine are saved, again more or less accidentally, but with the Manderley estate destroyed, they end their lives in elaboration adalah, a seedy French hotel and brood on their lost Manderley and their hollow marriage.

Burdened with a murderous hero and an unhappy ending, Rebecca faced problems of transposition to the screen. Start? To placate the Hays Office, Selznick and Hitchcock modified the plot to make Rebecca’s death an accident, covered up by Maxim. On the whole, other changes made for elaboration likelihood, the film streamlined the action, excising the musings that fill the book and mad woman attic, building up the suspense, chiefly through the adalah, pressures the sinister Mrs. Danvers brings to bear on the new wife. Geoffrey Chaucer? From the start, Hitchcock doses du Maurier’s plot with local tension, as when it seems that the heroine will leave Monte Carlo with her employer before she can bid farewell to Max. The cinematography turns Manderley into an oversized mausoleum with doorknobs set at elaboration model adalah, the level of the heroine’s shoulders. Hitchcock seized the opportunity to Folktales: Joyce Oate´s Where are you Going, Where Been?, hint at ominous secrets harbored in elaboration likelihood adalah, the vast rooms and Organic Foods Essay, corridors.

Rebecca sets Hitchcock on the way toward one of elaboration likelihood model, his central situations of his career: the woman trapped in a threatening household. Rebecca poses the questions: Whom have I married? What is samuel, his past? What am I to him? The novel’s plot answers by model, exposing Maxim as a man who murdered his first wife but found some happiness with his second. Suspicion (1941) poses the same questions, but Iles’ novel suggests frightful answers: I have married a liar, a cheat, and a killer; and he intends to murder me. Again, the film’s ending had to be fudged. Suspicion ’s heroine has misinterpreted Johnny, and The Health of Producing and Eating, he has intended to kill himself, not her. Adalah? The reconciliation is even more of a letdown than in mad woman in the attic, the Rebecca instance. Variety responded sourly: In switching tragic ending of Francis Iles’ novel in favor of model adalah, a happy finale, Hitchcock and his scripters devised a most inept and inconclusive windup that fails to Benefits of Producing and Eating Foods, measure up to the dramatic intensity of preceding footage, and this doesn’t reach the climax expected.

In this respect, picture structure is elaboration adalah, deficient, and it is obvious that the writers endeavored to when start, toss in elaboration model adalah, the happy ending in a few hundred feet and let it go at that. 59. Later filmmakers solved the problem of the enigmatic husband in a simpler fashion: Let the husband be a murderer, and let the a knight's, wife escape. This more stable option was already laid out in a 1937 English film, Love from elaboration model adalah, a Stranger , which was surely known to Hitchcock. On The MacArthur Tool-? Adapted from Frank Vosper’s play 60, it presents Carol, who throws aside her loyal suitor Ronald for the charming Gerald Lovell. She marries Gerald and at elaboration model, first enjoys their life in an isolated cottage. Geoffrey A Knight's Tale? But his sudden rages and his secretiveness about his photographic “experiments” make her worry. Breaking with Carol’s range of knowledge about halfway through the film, the narration shows Gerald in likelihood model, the cellar burning a photograph of her. Soon we learn that his interest in historical murders is one expression of a battlefront trauma that will drive him to kill her. Gradually Carol’s suspicions crystallize.

In a drunken fit Gerald tells her how he trapped her, but before he can kill her she manages to poison his coffee. He collapses and Ronald arrives in time to Benefits Organic, console a sobbing Carol. Ronald plays a secondary role in Love from a Stranger . He doesn’t rescue Carol but merely offers her an alternative partner at the end. Hollywood’s later versions of the elaboration likelihood model adalah, plot turned the other man into what Diane Waldman has called a “helper male”a figure who can save the heroine and supply a romantic alliance once the a knight's, murderous husband has been eliminated. Elaboration Model Adalah? 61 But Hitchcock presumably could not radically revise Rebecca or Suspicion to provide a helper male, so the resolutions had to end in impasse. Interestingly, when Hamilton’s play Gaslight made it to film in the U.S. (1944), the young clemens, plot was recast to model adalah, make the Folktales: Joyce Oate´s Going, you Been?, inspector an appropriate suitor for the rescued wife. Apart from lacking helper males, Rebecca and likelihood model, Suspicion posed problems of narration. Geoffrey Chaucer A Knight's Tale? Love from a Stranger provided a wide frame of knowledge. By cutting between scenes displaying Gerald’s madness and scenes of the unsuspecting Carol, Vorhaus’s film generates classic suspense. In contrast, both Rebecca and Suspicion confine us so tightly to elaboration likelihood model adalah, the heroine’s viewpoint that the ultimate revelations seem evasive or forced. The problems with these two films point up a more general tension within Hitchcock’s aesthetic.

Restriction to mad woman in the, what a character knows enhances mystery (and can engender surprise), but suspense, he maintained, comes when we know more than the adalah, character. 62 The best compromise is when our knowledge exceeds the when did jamestown start, character’s by a little, but not so much that we know everything. Hence the moments that fall outside Jeff’s range of knowledge in Rear Window , the judicious inserted scene of the agency meeting in North by elaboration model adalah, Northwest , and other instances in a knight's tale, which Hitchcock slightly widens our range of knowledge, often in a teasing way. 63 An anonymous reviewer for the London Times caught this strategy in Sabotage : Hitchcock will usually “lay most of elaboration model, his cards on the table.” 64. With Shadow of a Doubt , Hitchcock and Thornton Wilder solved the difficulties of the two earlier women-in-peril films.

A freer range of narration allows suspense to build: the opening man-on-the-run episode, confined largely to Uncle Charlie, segues into a section that centers on mad woman what Young Charlie suspects and eventually discovers. Elaboration Likelihood Adalah? In accordance with Mitchell Wilson’s anatomy of the suspense plot, she takes the initiative and The Health of Producing Organic Foods Essay, turns on likelihood model adalah her tormentor, forcing him to leave town. Although much of this portion is geoffrey, focused around Young Charlie, though, we get glimpses of Uncle Charlie on his own. In addition, Shadow of a Doubt supplies a helper male, the police investigator Jack Graham. Although Hitchcock dismissed the character as a concession to elaboration likelihood adalah, romance, 65 and although Jack doesn’t rescue Young Charlie during the climactic sequence on the train, he provides a stable resolution, mitigating a little the did jamestown, devastation that Young Charlie feels.

Hitchcock, then, offered other filmmakers both models of what to do and what to avoid. But it seems to me that the burst of psychological suspense films at all budget levels left him less room to innovate. Many variations were emerging; the elaboration likelihood adalah, space was getting crowded. Women-in-peril plots featuring murderous husbands had become commonplace, and they often displayed skilful use of restricted point of view, as in Sorry, Wrong Number (1948). There were even “Hitchcockian” movies avant la lettre : The crime inadvertently witnessed, the premise of Rear Window , was tried out in Lady on a Train (1945), in Shock (1946), and perhaps most vividly in tale, Ted Tetzlaff’s The Window (1949), in which a tenement boy sees a stabbing but can’t convince anyone of likelihood model, it. In short, with so many films mimicking Hitchcock’s, and so many variants of basic suspense situations proliferating, how was he to young samuel, maintain his cinematic identity? In Spellbound (1945) he led the way to elaboration likelihood model, a burst of young samuel clemens, talking-cure films. He and Ben Hecht blended his favored woman-in-peril situation with spy intrigue in Notorious (1946), making the helper male into a rival suitor from the start and organizing part of the plot around his range of knowledge. For other projects Hitchcock seemed to adalah, strain to find something highly distinctive, either dramatically or technically. A contract-fulfilling job, the courtroom drama The Paradine Case (1948) posed appetizing technical challenges, but Selznick’s interference dominated the results. It seems to me that the proliferation of suspense films was one cause of when did jamestown start, Hitchcock’s shift to more outré angles for his projects: increased sexual explicitness ( The Paradine Case, Rope ), provocative drama of ideas ( Lifeboat, Rope ), confinement to a single setting ( Lifeboat, Rope ), long-take shooting ( Paradine Case, Rope, Under Capricorn ), and duplicitous flashback ( Stage Fright ). Significantly, in his interviews with Truffaut, Hitchcock found fault with nearly all these experiments, suggesting that Under Capricorn left the realm of the adalah, thriller altogetherdespite the fact that it presents a familiar woman-in-a-threatening-household situation.

Having helped set the terms for thriller storytelling in the 1940s, he was obliged to recalibrate what he could offer in the face of young samuel, competition. 66. At the end of the decade, I think, Hitchcock had managed to re-synchronize with his contemporaries. Most of his 1940s projects, finished and unfinished, have their sources in literary works of the 1920s and 1930s. Stage Fright came from a recent novel, but one very much in the 1930s English detective-story tradition. Likelihood Model Adalah? 67 Strangers on a Train (1950), however, was based on did jamestown a male-oriented psychological thriller written by one of the women participating in the 1940s burst of suspense fiction. Despite making some compromises in adapting Patricia Highsmith’s original, 68 the master of suspense had allied himself with a writer who typified the elaboration, new phase of the suspense thrillera phase that he had done much to foster. 69.

I’m indebted to did jamestown, Sidney Gottlieb, Richard Allen, and Thomas Leitch, who provided helpful criticisms of an earlier version of this essay. Thanks also to David Meeker, who provided access to a hard-to-find film. 1 : Mitchell Wilson, “The Suspense Story,” The Writer 60, 1 (January 1947), 15. 3 : Howard Haycraft, “Evolution of the Whodunit in the Years of World War II ,” New York Times Book Review (12 August 1945),” 7. 4 : Helen McCloy, “The Writing and Selling of likelihood model adalah, Mysteries,” The Writer 60, 4 (April 1947), 137. 5 : Charlotte Armstrong, “Razzle-Dazzle,” The Writer 66, 1 (January 1953), 34. 6 : Freeman Wills Crofts, The 12:30 from Croydon (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965), 187. 7 : Dorothy L. Sayers, “Introduction,” The Third Omnibus of Crime (New York: Blue Ribbon, 1935), 7. 8 : Agatha Christie, Towards Zero (New York: Pocket Books, 1972; orig. 1944), 1213. 9 : Howard Haycraft, Murder for Pleasure: The Life and Times of the on Competence Assessment Tool-, Detective Story (New York: Appleton-Century, 1941), 89.

10 : Quoted in Haycraft, 90. 11 : François Truffaut, Hitchcock (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967), 127. 12 : “Chaplin in ‘Circus’ a London Sensation,” New York Times (16 March 1928), 30. 13 : Some of these plays can still be read in acting editions. For a generous overview of them and elaboration, many others see Amnon Kabatchnik, Blood on the Stage 19251950: Milestone Plays of Crime, Mystery, and Detection (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2010). 14 : Quoted in Sean French, Patrick Hamilton: A Life (London: Faber and Faber, 1993), 139. 15 : For example, The State v. Elinor Norton , reviewed in start, John Chamberlain, “Books of the Times,” New York Times (29 January 1934), 13; Poison Pen , reviewed in Richmond Theatre, The Times (London) (10 Aug. 1937): 8; “Detective Stories: Death Has a Past ,” The Times (London) (6 June 1939), 19. 16 : Boileau-Narcejac, Le roman policier (Paris: Payot, 1964), 150154.

17 : Charles Morgan, “Mr. Milne Tries a New Trick with a Mystery Play,” New York Times (25 March 1928), 119. 18 : For much of what follows, I’m indebted to LeRoy L. Likelihood Adalah? Panek’s acute, entertaining study The Special Branch: The British Spy Novel, 1890-1980 (Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1981), especially chapters 112. 19 : Alice Payne Hackett, Sixty Years of Bestsellers 18951955 (New York: Bowker, 1956), 1233. 20 : I review this history from a slightly different angle in “I Love a Mystery: Extra-credit reading,” a blog entry. For stimulating and nonconformist accounts of the development of detective fiction, see LeRoy Lad Panek’s books Watteau’s Shepherds: The Detective Novel in Britain 19141940 (Bowling Green: Popular Press, 1979) and An Introduction to the Detective Story (Bowling Green: Popular Press, 1987). 21 : Janice Radaway, Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Literature (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984), 3031. 22 : Lee Wright, “Mysteries Are Books,” Publishers Weekly 139 (25 January 1941), 385. In 1946 James Sandoe estimated that mysteries constituted one-quarter of all book-length fiction published in the United States. See “Dagger of the Mind” in The Art of the The Health Benefits and Eating Organic Foods Essay, Mystery Story , ed. Howard Haycraft (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946), 254.

For more figures, see Frank Gruber, “Some Notes on Mystery Novels and Their Authors,” in The Notebooks of Raymond Chandler , ed. Model Adalah? Frank Gruber (New York: Ecco Press, 1976), 3334. 23 : Flyleaf blurb for Mitchell Wilson’s The Panic-Stricken (New York: Simon and Essay The MacArthur Competence Assessment Adjudication, Schuster, 1946). 24 : “RadioGeneral Markets,” The Writer 64, 1 (January 1951), 58. 25 : Howard Haycraft, “The Burgeoning Whodunit,” The New York Times (6 October 1946), BR3BR4. 26 : Anthony Boucher, “Trojan Horse Opera,” in elaboration likelihood, Haycraft, Art of the Mystery Story , 249. 27 : Alice Payne Hackett, Fifty Years of Bestsellers (New York: Bowker, 1945), 7778. 28 : Richard Mealand suggested that novelists working in Benefits Foods Essay, the psychological thriller gained a wider readership because of the film trend. See “Hollywoodunit,” in Haycraft, Art of the Mystery Story , 301303. 29 : Raymond Chandler, letter to Hamish Hamilton (13 Otober 1950), in likelihood model, Raymond Chandler Speaking , ed.

Dorothy Gardiner and Kathrine Sorley Walker (Plainview, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1971; orig. 1962), 60. 30 : Anonymous, “New Trend in the Horror Pix,” Variety (16 October 1944), 143. 31 : Fred Stanley, “Hollywood Shivers,” New York Times (28 May 1944), X3. 32 “New Trend in the Horror Pix,” 143. 33 : See Sayers, “Introduction,” Third Omnibus of Crime , 6; Bruce Hamilton, Middle Class Murder (Leipzig: Tanschnitz, 1938; orig. 1936). 34 : Hollywood, The Dream Factory: An Anthropologist Looks at the Movie-Makers (Boston: Little, Brown, 1950), 119, 140.

See also Stanley, “Hollywood Shivers,” X3. 35 : Howard Haycraft, “Evolution of the Whodunit in The Health Benefits of Producing and Eating Organic Essay, the Years of World War II ,” New York Times Book Review (12 August 1945),” 7. 36 : Anonymous, “Movie Companies Look to Detective Story Writers for the New Psychological Film,” Publishers Weekly 149 (9 March 1946), 15151516. 37 : Anthony Boucher, “As Crime Goes By (24 February 1946),” The Anthony Boucher Chronicles: Reviews and Commentary 19421947 , ed. Francis M. Nevins (Lexington, KY: Ramble House, 2001), 102. 38 : “New Films in elaboration likelihood adalah, London,” The Times (London), 25 May 1936, 12. 39 : See Tom Ryall, Alfred Hitchcock and Essay The MacArthur Competence Assessment, the British Cinema (London: Croom Helm, 1986) and Robert Murphy, “Dark Shadows around Pinewood and Ealing,” Film International no. 7 (2004), 2835. 40 : On his fondness for Buchan and Belloc Lowndes, see Charles Barr, English Hitchcock (London: Movie, 1999), 1014. 41 : Patrick McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), 212. 42 : Alfred Hitchcock, Introduction, Intrigue: Four Great Spy Novels of Eric Ambler (New York: Knopf, 1943), viiviii.

43 : “ Foreign Correspondent ,” Variety (28 August 1940), 16; Philip K. Scheuer, “A Town Called Hollywood,” Los Angeles Times (7 April 1940), C3; advertisement for Rebecca , Variety (24 April 1940), 21; advertisement for Shadow of a Doubt , Variety (19 January 1943), 4; advertisement for Lifeboat and Spellbound , Variety (23 February1945), 12. Adalah? Supposedly the “master of suspense” label was coined by a New York advertising agent promoting the Suspense radio pilot (McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock , 276). 46 : New York Herald Tribune review quoted in mad woman in the, advertisement for The Fallen Sparrow , Variety (19 October 1943), 5. 47 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Trio Gives Horror Picture New Dress,” Los Angeles Times (28 March 1943), C3; and Radie Harris, “Hollywood Runaround,” Variety (11 September 1945), 4. The Disney film Harris mentions is Make Mine Music , in elaboration likelihood model, which the Johnny Fedora and Alice Blue Bonnet episode is said to contain suspense “as breathless as a Hitchcock thriller.” 48 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Killer Stalks Ida Lupino in samuel, High-Tension Thriller,” Los Angeles Times (30 January 1950), A7. 49 : Sidney Gottlieb surveys Hitchcock’s branding strategies, some quite amusing, in “Step Seventeen: Brand Hitchcock,” in 39 Steps to the Genius of Hitchcock: A BFI Compendium (London: British Film Institute, 2012), 7277. 50 : Alfred Hitchcock, “Let ‘Em Play God,” Hollywood Reporter 100, no. 47 (11 October 1948), reprinted in Hitchcock on elaboration model adalah Hitchcock , ed. Sidney Gottlieb (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 113. 51 : Hitchcock, “Introduction: The Quality of clemens, Suspense,” Alfred Hitchcock’s Fireside Book of Suspense (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1947), viii.

This edited collection originally appeared as Suspense Stories Selected by elaboration model, Alfred Hitchcock (New York: Dell, 1945), but the introduction to that edition lacks the passages I’ve cited here. 53 : William Fifield, “To the Golden Corn,” The Writer 62, 8 (August 1949), 259. 54 : William Dozier, “Trends and Perspectives,” Writers’ Congress; The Proceedings of the Conference Held in October 1943 under the Sponsorship of the Hollywood Writers; Mobilization and the University of California (Berkeley: University of California Press), 3641. 55 : “ Man Hunt ,” Variety (10 June 1941), 13. See also the New York Times review in with Where are you Where Have you Been?, which Lang is called “a master of concentrated suspense” (T. S., “ Hangmen Also Die ,” New York Times [16 April 1943], 24). 56 : Quoted in Philip K. Elaboration Model? Scheuer, “Film History Made by ‘Double Indemnity,’” Los Angeles Times (6 August 1944), C1. 57 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Suspense Filmed in mad woman in the attic, a New Way: Stride Made in Technique,” Los Angeles Times (3 September 1944), C1. 58 : I discuss this sequence, and link to model adalah, the scene, in a blog entry.

60 : The play’s source is an young samuel, Agatha Christie short story, “Philomel Cottage.” It does include a rival suitor, although he isn’t much help to the heroine. Interestingly, Christie’s story turns on the revelation that the husband isn’t the only practitioner of elaboration likelihood adalah, hearthside murder. 61 : Diane Waldman, “Horror and Domesticity: The Modern Gothic Romance Film of the 1940s,” Ph. D. thesis, University of WisconsinMadison, 1981, 556. 62 : On restriction to a single character, Hitchcock notes that he avoids the omniscient range of knowledge provided by Griffith-style crosscutting: “Griffith showed the man on of Producing and Eating Foods Essay the scaffold, then the messenger with the pardon riding to the rescue. We show the man on the scaffold, but the audience doesn’t know whether our rider has started or not. That’s the elaboration likelihood model adalah, secret of suspense today.” Quoted in Philip K. Scheuer, “A Town Called Hollywood,” Los Angeles Times (19 April 1939), C3. The more famous formulation of the alternative is found in his dialogue with Truffaut: “In the usual form of suspense it is indispensable that the The Health Organic Essay, public be made perfectly aware of likelihood model adalah, all the facts involved” (Truffaut, Hitchcock , 51). 63 : I discuss these fluctuations in knowledge in Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 2961. On North by Northwest , see David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012), 406410.

64 : “New Films in Folktales: Comparison with Where Where Have Been?, London,” The Times (London) (7 December 1936), 12. 65 : McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock , 310. 66 : I propose that competition played a more specific role in Hitchcock’s experiments with long-take filming at a period when many directors were trying out this technique. See my essay “Poetics of Cinema,” in Poetics of Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 3242. 67 : On Hitchcock’s literary sources, see the essays in Hitchcock at the Source: The Auteur as Adapter , ed. R. Likelihood Model Adalah? Barton Palmer and David Boyd (Albany: SUNY Press, 2011).

68 : In her essay “Suspense in Fiction” ( The Writer 67, 12 [December 1954], 404), Patricia Highsmith recalls that when her novel was filmed, “the director” (Hitchcock is The Health Benefits Foods Essay, never named) told her that he had to alter the plot so that Guy did not commit the murder that he owed Bruno. “He told me that he had been unable to model, find a script writer who could make the story convincing, or who could put the story into form for the screen.” Yet for when did jamestown start, Highsmith the key to the story was that second, coerced murder: “Only therein lay the drama and likelihood, the suspense for me.” The result, Highsmith judged, was a weaker story. 69 : For more on the development of suspense films and thrillers, see Martin Rubin, Thrillers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Ralph Harper, The World of the Thriller (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1969); Jerry Palmer, Thrillers: Genesis and tale, Structure of a Popular Genre (London: Edward Arnold, 1978); Charles Derry, The Suspense Thriller: Films in the Shadow of elaboration likelihood adalah, Alfred Hitchcock (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988); Thomas Leitch, Crime Films (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). A more recent, if sketchy and erratic, study is Patrick Anderson, The Triumph of the Thriller: How Cops, Crooks, and Cannibals Captured Popular Fiction (New York, 2007). An encyclopedic guide to mystery fiction and film is Mike Grost’s website. have comments about the state of this website? go here.